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    Wronger than malignant neglect

    Posted by Padre on 15 Aug 2013 at 14:13 GMT=

    Ignored (non-communicable) kno= wledges and bad education overall, and in the health science too. The sp= ontaneous diffusion of sodium ions into the cells and the diffusion of p= otassium ions out of the cells, enhances the entropy. More precisely: (e= very mmol) excess sodium and the wrong sodium-potassium ratio (and other= wrong ratios) enhances the entropy in our body, in every cells. "T= he activity of Na-K pump has been estimated to account for 20-40 % of th= e
    resting energy expenditure in a typical adult." (1) Some cons= equences of high sodium intake, the specialists talk about these rarely = or never: Higher energy requirements (energy expenditure) for Na-K pump = and kidney. All the rest of our vital processes (functional processes of= the cells) receive less energy - because the metabolic rate (speed and = capacity of enzyme reactions, oxygen supply, etc.) is limited. And the e= xcess sodium intake do not increase the oxidative pathway. But, a critic= al surplus switches the anaerobic glycolysis on, in our every cells. Thi= s can be named: Sodium-Induced Cellular Anaerobic Glycolysis (SICAG). I = think, this is a very old anaerobic cellular mechanism, before free oxyg= en on Earth. We produce lactic acid in our every cells. Consequently, al= l of our vital processes and organs
    work worse (our heart, brain, re= gulating systems, immune system, etc.), and our cells are dying. Remains= less energy for the regeneration. We burn the candle on both of his end= s (aerobic and anaerobic). The average lifetime of our cells shortens. S= oon (faster) the telomeres run out. Our ageing accelerates. We get sick = often and we will die soon. Logical
    consequence, the unnecessary sod= ium increases the incidence of all illnesses. Searching in 12 book set o= f Dietary Reference Intakes (more than 5000 pages, and about 600 referen= ces in the chapter; Sodium and Chloride) no hits for entropy, and the so= dium-potassium pump is only some empty phrases. (2) The blind watchmaker= learned well the physics first, then the chemistry. And dealt with bioc= hemistry then only. But never forgot what he learned already once. The o= ptimal Na/K ratio and the ratio between sum of alkaline metals and sum o= f polyvalent metals, and the ratio between alkaline metals and energy co= ntent, etc. is in the human milk. From every viewpoint, the human milk i= s an evolutionary perfect food, including the minimal energy expenditure= of the Na-K pump and kidney of the babies (=3D possible minimum entropy= -transfer into the babies). Thus, the human milk is the perfect guide to= calculate the optimal adult intakes. Unfortunate, that these exist only= in traces, in the scientific literature. And in some articles, even the= traces are concealed. But I collected the evidences (the traces, and la= ck of the traces) of the above ones. Let us see it in a nearly chronolog= ical and logical order.

    1965. Klahr and Bricker: Energetics of = Anaerobic Sodium Transport by the Fresh Water Turtle Bladder. (3)
    I = quote from this: "The rate of anaerobic glycolysis, as determined b= y lactate formation, correlates well with the rate as determined by glyc= ogen utilization. Using lactate formation as the index of anaerobic glyc= olysis, a linear relationship was observed between glycolysis and net an= aerobic sodium transport."
    Oops, sodium transport, anaerobic gl= ycolysis and lactic acid, in 1965!

    And 35 years later, 2000. Th= erien and Blostein: INVITED REVIEW - Mechanisms of sodium pump regulatio= n. (4)
    I don't quote from this, because 362 references in the articl= e, but nothing about the anaerobic glycolysis and lactic acid. Why?
    =
    2005. Christopher B Scott: Review, Contribution of anaerobic energy= expenditure to whole body thermogenesis. (5)
    Some quotations from t= his: "Entropy represents energy that is not available to perform wo= rk so that simply put, energy transfer is inefficient. ... Brisk activit= y of the sodium pump necessitates a rapid rate of ATP re-synthesis. If t= his is true then it is important to recognize that in some cells lactate= with presumed heat production is better correlated with sodium and pota= ssium pumping than is oxygen uptake. ... It seems logical to conclude th= at most mammalian energy expenditure does come from aerobic metabolism b= ut the evolution of a metabolic acceleration with concomitant heat produ= ction comes from both anaerobic and aerobic pathways. The relative contr= ibutions of each pathway to whole-body thermogenesis are not known."= ;
    This already something (entropy, sodium-potassium pump, anaerobic = glycolysis and lactic acid, in one article) but not too much. And why &q= uot;in some cells" only? I think so, in everycells (generated by hi= gh sodium intakes), and this is the reality!

    And 3 years later= , 2008. Morrison et al.: Central control of thermogenesis in mammals. (6= )
    Again, I don't quote from this, because ~ 180 references in the a= rticle, but nothing about the (floor gas) Na-K pump, anaerobic glycolysi= s and lactic acid. How can the knowledge (which was found already once a= nd/or more) disappear?

    1985. Henningsen: The sodium pump and e= nergy regulation: some new aspects for essential hypertension, diabetes = II and severe overweight. (7)
    Again I quote (the abstract): "Th= ere is a growing evidence for that in modern societies the function of t= he cellular
    sodium-potassium pump (membrane-bound Na+ K+ ATPase) in = several tissues in man cannot respond adequately to demands. This is not= seen in any other free-living vertebrates on this earth. The clearly un= physiological very high intake of sodium-chloride (salt) and also alcoho= l is definitely playing an important role in the development of the comm= on
    degenerating metabolic aberrations, e.g. essential hypertension, = diabetes II and severe overweight, in man. The special and overall impor= tant role of the sodium-potassium pump for optimal cellular function and= regeneration with special reference to the vascular tissues is presente= d and discussed."
    Oops, the floor gas sodium-potassium pump (an= aerobic turbo pump) is not enough, our cells are dying, and this was cle= ar in 1985.

    1991. Nedergaard et al.: Acid-induced death in neur= ons and glia. (8)
    From the article: "Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia = induces lactic acid formation trough the accentuation of anaerobic glyco= lysis. The magnitude of this lactic acid accumulation depends largely up= on the preischemic glucose and glycogen concentrations of the affected t= issue (Smith et al., 1986). Local accumulation of lactic acid to cytotox= ic levels may play a causal role in the genesis of brain infarction foll= owing cerebral ischemia (Meyer and Yamaguchi, 1977; Siemkowitz and Hanse= n, 1978; Pulsinelli et al., 1982; Nedergaard, 1987). Several authors hav= e addressed directly the issue of acid-induced cell death."
    And= the excess sodium intake (floor gas Na-K pump) also induces lactic acid = formation trough the switching on the anaerobic glycolysis (SICAG).
    =
    2001. Osaka et al.: Thermogenesis induced by osmotic stimulation of= the intestines in the rat. (9)
    Some details from the article (here = are some concealed traces): "The energy expenditure induced by 20 %= glucose was 2.79 +/- 0.45 kJ kg-0.75 for 3 h (Fig. 4). The RER (respira= tory exchange ratio) increased from 0.82 +/- 0.01 to 0.92 +/- 0.01 at 11= 5 min (Fig. 1B), suggesting the oxidation of carbohydrate ... The metabo= lic rate rose duringthe 10 min infusion period of 3.6 % NaCl, stayed at = a plateau level of ~ 205 J kg-0.75 min-1 between 35 and 120 min and then= slowly declined but was still significantly higher than the baseline le= vel at 3 h. The energy expenditure induced by 3.6 % NaCl was 3.49 +/- 0.= 33 kJ kg-0.75, ... The RER did not change after infusion of any of the N= aCl solutions (Fig. 2B)."
    These results proves clearly, the exc= ess salt intake (the higher energy expenditure of the Na-K pump and kidn= ey, against entropy) do not increase the oxidative pathway, on rats. (I = notice it: the decrease would be logical?) But a critical surplus switch= es the anaerobic glycolysis on, and produces lactic acid in every cells.= We can calculate that this anaerobic energy (ATP) production consumed m= ore glucose (from the glycogen reserve) than the total resting metabolis= m of the rats, on the oxidative pathway. Despite, that this anaerobic ex= cess isn't more than (about) 10-15 % of the total resting metabolism of = the rats. And after the infusion of the highest dose of salt, 3 hours wa= s not enough to return to the baseline level (to the level of resting me= tabolism). This is a real Sodium-Induced Cellular Anaerobic
    Thermoge= nesis (SICAT) or SICAG. From the effects of 0,9 % and 1,8 % NaCl infusio= n, I can suppose, anaerobic glycolysis begin in an average 70 kg adult f= rom ~ 6-7 g dose of salt. I would dare to bet, that this was examined in= similar (but oral) human experiments already, but where are the results= ? Furthermore, from the above results roughly calculable: the salted hum= anity squanders the energy of at least 100 million tons of food annually= , to get rid of the sodium swallowed unnecessarily. We overeat (devour),= we get fat, we get sick, and we die, while millions are starving on Ear= th.

    And 9 years later: 2010. Ram K. Mathur: Role of diabetes, h= ypertension, and cigarette smoking on atherosclerosis. (10)
    From th= e article: "To determine the mechanism of thermogenesis, Osaka et a= l.[7-9] infused hypertonic solution of glucose, NaCl, ... The mechanism = of thermogenesis is not clear. However, it may involve intestinal osmore= ceptors. ... It is this thermogenesis that is responsible for the genera= tion of atherosclerotic plaque."
    From the end of the article: = "Patients are advised to stay away from fatty foods, which obviousl= y does not help because fatty meal is not the cause for atherosclerosis.= Therefore, the researchers should first examine the cause of the diseas= e before trying to cure it; otherwise, we will be treating symptoms rath= er than curing the disease itself. ... Finally, this field requires some= broad theories and hypotheses explaining the involvement of foods, diab= etes, hypertension, cigarette smoking, and others in the formation of at= herosclerotic plaque. We have a mission but are lacking the vision. That= is why we have not made any progress even though we have worked on it f= or more than 50 years."
    In this two articles (Osaka et al. and = Mathur) absolutely nothing about Na-K pump, anaerobic glycolysis and lac= tic acid. Bad education, oblivion, or something else? 9 years and 45 yea= rs after Klahr & Bricker, and the mechanism of thermogenesis isn't c= lear? Was not clear really, for the authors and editors? Or ...? The flo= or gas (anaerobic) sodium-potassium pump devours the energy, (and we pro= duce lactic acid) but it's not enough, and our cells are dying. We
    h= aven't enough energy, and we haven't enough time for the regeneration, b= ecause we enhances the entropy (by high sodium intakes) in our every cel= ls, day by day, again and again. The entropy devours our energy, this is= responsible for the generation of atherosclerotic plaque. And this is r= esponsible for the low physical activity. And this generates strong hung= er (and thirst). We overeat and get fat. And indisputable consequence, t= hat the unnecessarily swallowed excess sodium increases the incidence of= all illnesses, without any exception, including even the genetic disord= ers, cancer, NCD's and infectious diseases.

    2005. Meneton et = al.: Links between dietary salt intake, renal salt handling, blood press= ure, and cardiovascular diseases. (11)
    From the abstract: "The = mechanisms by which dietary salt increases arterial pressure are not ful= ly understood, but they seem related to the inability of the kidneys to = excrete large amounts of salt. From an evolutionary viewpoint, the human= species is adapted to ingest and excrete < 1 g of salt per day, at l= east 10 times less than the average values
    currently observed in ind= ustrialized and urbanized countries."
    40 years after Klahr &= ; Bricker and 20 years after Henningsen, why "not fully understood&= quot;?

    2011. Dickinson et al.: Endothelial function is impaired= after a high-salt meal in healthy subjects. (12)
    From the article: = “However, the mechanisms relating salt and endothelial dysfunction= are still not clear.”
    21 years after Henningsen, why "no= t clear"? The progress of the science has been stopped.

    19= 98. Sandor Z.: Equivalency law in the metal requirement of the living or= ganisms. (13)
    This equivalency law is a simple chemical rule: The al= kaline metal requirement (potassium + sodium) is chemically equivalent w= ith that of polyvalent metals (calcium + magnesium + zinc + iron etc.). = Because, is a strict chemical stoichiometrical rule of the cation exchan= ge processes is that they proceed with the exchange of an equivalent amo= unt of positively charged counter-ions. The counter-ions of the polyvale= nt metals in our body =3D Na + K. Less counter-ion =3D trouble, much cou= nter-ion =3D trouble, very much counter-ion =3D catastrophe. The average= metal content of the breast milk proves this law, surprisingly well. Bu= t the scientists do not deal with this fact.

    2005. Yamawaki et = al.: Macronutrient, mineral and trace element composition of breast milk= from Japanese women. (14)
    From this article we can calculate our ow= n optimal intakes, and main optimal ratios. (Although this is only one a= rticle, and there is not much one like this in the literature.) For exam= ple, the optimum of sodium for an adult is not more than 400-500 mg/day.= And the optimal sodium:potassium (mass) ratio is approximately 1:4. The= WHO recommend for an adult 2 g/day of sodium (and at least 3510 mg/day = potassium). This excess sodium and the wrong Na:K ratio increases the en= tropy, and the energy consumption of sodium-potassium pump, and is fourf= old - fivefold sodium load on the kidney. In Hungary, the real sodium in= take could be 6-8 g/day! I know a "very good job". It's just t= he work of 4-5 men (or just of 12-20 men) day by day, until die. Are the= re volunteers?

    Conclusions:

    In the health sciences it= is not allowed to ignore the laws of the physics and the chemistry. We = must use the already existing knowledges, and we must to teach that to e= verybody. This is the duty of the scientific elite. The fats and the sug= ars are foods, and are sources of our energy. The excess sodium intake (= above the optimum) and the extremely wrong ratios of metals enhance the = entropy, and the entropy devours our energy. Our vital processes (functi= onal
    processes of the cells) receive less energy, because our metabo= lic rate is limited. All of our vital processes work worse. Consequently= , the unnecessary sodium excess increases the incidence of all illnesses= without any exception. Increase of physical activity doesn't save us (s= ince, we hasn't enough energy to do it). Reducing the fat and sugar cont= ent of processed foods doesn't save us. The sonorous "reducing salt= intake" programs doesn't help us. Only one
    solution exists. We= must radically reduce the sodium(-chloride) content of processed foods,= not by taxes, but by strict laws. On the other hand, it is necessary to= reduce the tax of the spices and his price. The salt is the greatest bl= under of the Homo Sapiens. Only the man nourishes the entropy in his own= body. There are not free-living animals like this on this Earth. The en= tropy and the natural selection destroyed the such species. We must stop= the putting salt. The entropy destroys us otherwise.

    Reference= s:

    1. Oregon State University, Linus Pauling Institute
    http://lpi.orego= nstate.ed...
    2 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES
    http:= //www.nap.edu/catalo...
    3 Saulo Klahr and Neal S. Bricker: Energ= etics of Anaerobic Sodium Transport by the Fresh Water Turtle Bladder.J Gen Physiol. 1965 March 1; 48(4): 571-580
    http://europepmc.org/arti...
    4. Alex G. Therien and Rhoda Blostein:
    INVITED REVIEW - Mechanisms = of sodium pump regulation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol
    September 1, 20= 00 vol. 279 no. 3 C541-C566
    http://ajpcell.physiology...
    5. Christopher B= Scott: Review, Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole bo= dy thermogenesis. Nutrition & Metabolism 2005, 2:14
    http://www.nutritionandme...=
    6. Shaun F. Morrison, Kazuhiro Nakamura and Christopher J. Madd= en: Central control of thermogenesis in mammals. July 1, 2008 Experiment= al Physiology, 93, 773-797.
    http= ://ep.physoc.org/cont...
    7. Henningsen N.C.: The sodium pump an= d energy regulation: some new aspects for essential hypertension, diabet= es II and severe overweight.
    Klinische Wochenschrift 63 Suppl 3:4-8.= 1985.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.g..= .
    8. Maiken Nedergaard, Steven A. Goldman, Smita Desai, and Will= iam A. Pulsinelli:
    Acid-induced death in neurons and glia.
    The J= ournal of Neuroscience, August 1991, 11(8): 2489-2497
    http://facweb.northseattl...
    9. Toshim= asa Osaka, Akiko Kobayashi, and Shuji Inoue: Thermogenesis induced by os= motic
    stimulation of the intestines in the rat. J Physiol. 2001 Apri= l 1; 532(Pt 1): 261–269.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.g...
    10. Ram K. Mathu= r: Role of diabetes, hypertension, and cigarette smoking on atherosclero= sis.
    J Cardiovasc Dis Res. 2010 Apr-Jun; 1(2): 64–68.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.= nih.g...
    11. Meneton P, Jeunemaitre X, de Wardener HE, MacGregor= GA.: Links between dietary salt intake, renal salt handling, blood pres= sure, and cardiovascular diseases.
    Physiol Rev. 2005 Apr; 85(2):679-= 715.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.g.= ..
    http://= physrev.physiology...
    12. Kacie M Dickinson, Peter M Clifton, an= d Jennifer B Keogh:
    Endothelial function is impaired after a high-sa= lt meal in healthy subjects.
    Am J Clin Nutr March 2011 vol. 93 no. 3= 500-505
    http://ajcn.= nutrition.org...
    13. Sandor Z.: Equivalency law in the metal req= uirement of the living organisms.
    Acta Alimentaria 27 (4): 389-395. = 1998.
    http://padre.uw.hu/ekvis/...
    and= in hungarian: http://padre.uw.hu/ekvis/...
    14. Yamawaki N, Yamada M, Kan-no T, Kojima T, Kaneko T, Yonekubo = A.:
    Macronutrient, mineral and trace element composition of breast = milk from Japanese women.
    J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2005; 19(2-3): 171-= 81. Epub 2005 Oct 24.
    SourceNutrition Research Institute, Meiji Dai= ries Corporation, 540 Naruda, Odawara,
    Kanagawa 250-0862, Japan.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.g...<= br/>http://www.sciencedirect....
    More references:http://padre.uw.hu/ekvis/...

    No competing interests declared.

    replied to on 15 Aug 2013 at 14:13 GMT=

    Competing interests declared:
    No competing interests declared.

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