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PLOS Medicine: A Peer-Reviewed Open-Access Journal
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Research Article

Diet and Physical Activity for the Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Policy Review

  • Carl Lachat,

    Affiliations: Nutrition and Child Health Unit, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium, Department of Food Safety and Food Quality, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

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  • Stephen Otchere,

    Affiliation: Department of Food Safety and Food Quality, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

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  • Dominique Roberfroid,

    Affiliation: Nutrition and Child Health Unit, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium

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  • Abubakari Abdulai,

    Affiliation: Community Nutrition Department, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana

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  • Florencia Maria Aguirre Seret,

    Affiliation: International Diabetes Federation, Brussels, Belgium

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  • Jelena Milesevic,

    Affiliation: Centre of Research Excellence in Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

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  • Godfrey Xuereb,

    Affiliation: Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health, Surveillance and Population-Based Prevention Unit, Department of Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

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  • Vanessa Candeias,

    Affiliation: Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health, Surveillance and Population-Based Prevention Unit, Department of Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

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  • Patrick Kolsteren mail

    pkolsteren@itg.be

    Affiliations: Nutrition and Child Health Unit, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium, Department of Food Safety and Food Quality, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

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Reader Comments (1)

Post a new comment on this article

My comment was deleted - why?

Posted by Padre on 16 Jul 2013 at 12:12 GMT

My comment on 01. July 2013. was:

"The principal reason of the NCD’s.
The principal reason of the NCD’s is the excessive sodium input and the astonishingly bad education. Forgotten and IGNORED or not understood articles, works, facts, evidences. The WHO and the scientific elite misleads all of the humanity. It is necessary to correct this worldwide. Every mmol excess sodium and the wrong sodium-potassium ratio (and other wrong ratios) enhances the ENTROPY in our body (in every cells).

Some shocking examples:

Saulo Klahr and Neal S. Bricker
Energetics of Anaerobic Sodium Transport by the Fresh Water Turtle Bladder
J Gen Physiol. 1965 March 1; 48(4): 571–580
http://europepmc.org/arti...
Oppss - sodium transport, anaerobic glycolysis and lactic acid in 1965!

Henningsen N.C.:
The sodium pump and energy regulation: some new aspects for essential hypertension, diabetes II and severe overweight.
Klinische Wochenschrift 63 Suppl 3:4-8. 1985.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.g...
From the abstract:
“There is a growing evidence for that in modern societies the function of the cellular sodium-potassium pump (membrane-bound Na+ K+ ATPase) in several tissues in man cannot respond adequately to demands. This is not seen in any other free-living vertebrates on this earth. The clearly unphysiological very high intake of sodium-chloride (salt) and also alcohol is definitely playing an important role in the development of the common degenerating metabolic aberrations, e.g. essential hypertension, diabetes II and severe overweight, in man…."

Already forgot this 28 years old article! The floor gas sodium-potassium pump (anaerobic turbo pump) is not enough, our cells are dying.

Maiken Nedergaard, Steven A. Goldman, Smita Desai, and William A. Pulsinelli:
Acid-induced death in neurons and glia
The Journal of Neuroscience, August 1991, 11(8): 2489-2497
http://facweb.northseattl...

Toshimasa Osaka, Akiko Kobayashi, and Shuji Inoue:
Thermogenesis induced by osmotic stimulation of the intestines in the rat
J Physiol. 2001 April 1; 532(Pt 1): 261–269.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.g...
From the article: “The RER (respiratory exchange ratio) did not change after infusion of any of the NaCl solutions (Fig. 2B)."

= Sodium-Induced Cellular Anaerobic Glycolysis. The salt-induced anaerobic energy (ATP) production consumed more glucose than the total resting metabolism of the rats, on the oxidative pathway. But, nothing about entropy, Na/K pump, anaerobic glycolysis, and lactic acid in the article.

Searching in 12 book set of DRI (more than 5000 pages, and about 600 references in the chapter 6; Sodium and Chloride) no hits for entropy,
and the sodium-potassium pump is only some empty phrases.
http://www.nap.edu/catalo...
http://www.nap.edu/openbo...

Ram K. Mathur:
Role of diabetes, hypertension, and cigarette smoking on atherosclerosis
J Cardiovasc Dis Res. 2010 Apr-Jun; 1(2): 64–68.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.g...
From the article: "..determine the mechanism of thermogenesis, Osaka et al. [7-9] infused hypertonic solution of glucose, NaCl,… The
mechanism of thermogenesis is not clear. .. That is why we have not made any progress even though we have worked on it for more than 50 years."

9 years and 5 x 9 years, and not clear? Floor gas Na/K pump and kidney use more energy (ATP) caused by NaCl. Must “burn" ANAEROBIC from the glycogen reserve for the excess ADP —> ATP reactions. And see Henningsen 1985, Nedergaard et al, 1991. - our cells are dying. etc., etc.

Unnecessarily swallowed excess sodium do not increase the oxidative glycolysis. But, a critical surplus switches the anaerobic pathway on, in our every cells, and produces lactic acid. All the rest of our vital processes receive less energy. All of our vital processes work worse (including our heart, brain, regulating systems, immune system, etc.)

More examples: http://padre.uw.hu/ekvis/... "
----
Censorship? The truth is not allowed? For example - here in BMJ online: http://www.bmj.com/conten...
exactly: http://www.bmj.com/conten...
the truth is not censored.
Sincerely - just a hungarian researcher
Z. Sandor

No competing interests declared.