How does the Law of Entropy fatten and destroy us?
With sodium! This is not a joke unfortunately,
the Entropy is our fiercest enemy, and the salt is his perfect food!

Sandor Zoltan

Research Centre for Natural Sciences
Hungarian Academy of Sciences
H-1117 Budapest, Magyar Tudosok Korutja 2. Hungary


Reading the article:
Hunter-Gatherer Energetics and Human Obesity.
Pontzer H, Raichlen DA, Wood BM, Mabulla AZP, Racette SB, et al. (2012), PLoS ONE 7(7): e40503. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040503 (and see my comments here)
I was thinking:
What makes use of it in us, those calories, that (theoretically) we can save (by low physical activity)? And: Why we swallow more calories (unnecessary surplus calories), as we can burn it?

I know the answer to both questions.
But "first":
From the BBC news: "Dr Herman Pontzer of the department of anthropology at Hunter College, New York, said everyone had assumed that hunter gatherers would burn hundreds more calories a day than adults in the US and Europe." And: "Some experts have proposed that our need for calories has dropped drastically since the industrial revolution, and this is a bigger risk factor for obesity than changes in diet."
And from the abstract of the article: "The similarity in metabolic rates across a broad range of cultures challenges current models of obesity suggesting that Western lifestyles lead to decreased energy expenditure."
This work is an exceptionally important milestone on this area of the science! Proves it that better models necessary - and better strategies against obesity likewise. Congratulations Dr. Pontzer and his co-authors!
Back to the questions:
Salted western foods (high sodium intake) = higher energy requirements for sodium-potassium pump (and kidney).
Conclusion: Low physical activity + "turbo pump" = High physical activity + "normal pump"
Some consequences of high sodium intake - The specialists talk about these rarely or never!
1. bigger and longer hunger stimulus - we overeat
2. we drink many sugary soft drinks - we get fat
3. we get tired soon, we move little
4. higher energy requirements (energy expenditure) for Na-K pump, and kidney
5. all the rest of our vital processes receive less energy. Because the metabolic rate - speed and capacity of enzyme reactions, oxygen supply, etc. - is limited (note: Kleiber's Law, in 1930s!). And excess sodium intake do not increase the oxidative pathway. But, a critical surplus switches the anaerobic glycolysis on, in our every cells!
6. all of our vital processes work worse (including our heart, brain, regulating systems, immune system, etc., and we produce much lactic acid in our cells, and our cells are dying)
7. we get sick often, and we will die soon
= Extra profit in food and pharmaceutical industry and health services, and savings in the pension funds.
Plagiarism necessary: The optimal Na/K ratio and the ratio between sum of alkaline metals and sum of polyvalent metals, and the ratio between alkaline metals and energy content (etc.) is in the human milk. From every viewpoint, the human milk is an evolutionary perfect food - including minimal energy expenditure of the Na-K pump in babies! Copy/Paste and extrapolation for adults (and some modification for some elements).
See this for example:
Yamawaki N, Yamada M, Kan-no T, Kojima T, Kaneko T, Yonekubo A.:
Macronutrient, mineral and trace element composition of breast milk from Japanese women.
J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2005; 19(2-3): 171-81. Epub 2005 Oct 24.
SourceNutrition Research Institute, Meiji Dairies Corporation, 540 Naruda, Odawara, Kanagawa 250-0862, Japan.
"The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of macronutrients and the mineral and trace element composition in maternal milk of Japanese women. We collected human milk samples from mothers living throughout Japan from December 1998 to September 1999, and defined as group A the 1197 samples among them that met the following conditions: breast milk of mothers who were under 40 years old, not in the habit of smoking and/or using vitamin supplements, and whose babies showed no symptoms of atopy and whose birth weights were 2.5 kg or more. We then analyzed their contents individually. We also analyzed the amino acid and free amino acid composition of the breast milk of pooled samples from various lactation stages. Large differences were found to exist among the contents of individual human milk samples. The mean contents of each component were as follows: energy, 66.3+/-13.3 kcal/100 mL; solid matter, 12.46+/-1.56 g/100 mL; ash, 0.19+/-0.06 g/100 mL; total nitrogen, 0.19+/-0.04 g/100 mL; lipids, 3.46+/-1.49 g/100 mL; carbohydrates, 7.58+/-0.77 g/100 mL; lactose, 6.44+/-0.49 g/100 mL; pH, 6.5+/-0.3; osmotic pressure, 299+/-14 mOsm/kg.H2O; chloride, 35.9+/-16.2 mg/100 mL; sodium, 13.5+/-8.7 mg/100 mL; magnesium, 2.7+/-0.9 mg/100 mL; phosphorus, 15.0+/-3.8 mg/100 mL; potassium, 47.0+/-12.1 mg/100 mL; calcium, 25.0+/-7.1 mg/100 mL; chromium, 5.9+/-4.7 microg/100 mL; manganese, 1.1+/-2.3 microg/100mL; iron, 119+/-251 microg/100 mL; copper, 35+/-21 microg/100 mL; zinc, 145+/-135 microg/100 mL; and selenium, 1.7+/-0.6 microg/100 mL. The content of each component varied greatly as the duration of lactation increased. In conclusion, it appears to be necessary to evaluate individual differences of human milk in order to perform valid research regarding infant formula."
A part from table 2 of the article (compositions of milk samples):
Days 1-5 6-10 11-20 21-89 90-180 181-365
Energy kcal/l 600 630 685 691 636 626
Cl mg/l 341 338 383 334 393 286
Na mg/l 327 241 242 139 107 116
K mg/l 723 709 639 466 434 432
Ca mg/l 293 310 304 257 230 260
Mg mg/l 32 30 29 25 27 33
P mg/l 159 190 176 156 138 130
And now, in 2013: "... Given this interrelatedness, requirement for potassium depends to some extent on dietary sodium, however, the ideal sodium/potassium intake ratio is not sufficiently established to use in setting requirements." :-((

 And I was looking for some information - and find:

Henningsen N.C.:
The sodium pump and energy regulation: some new aspects for essential hypertension, diabetes II and severe overweight.
Klinische Wochenschrift 63 Suppl 3:4-8. 1985.


"There is a growing evidence for that in modern societies the function of the cellular sodium-potassium pump (membrane-bound Na+ K+ ATPase) in several tissues in man cannot respond adequately to demands. This is not seen in any other free-living vertebrates on this earth. The clearly unphysiological very high intake of sodium-chloride (salt) and also alcohol is definitely playing an important role in the development of the common degenerating metabolic aberrations, e.g. essential hypertension, diabetes II and severe over-weight, in man. The special and overall important role of the sodium-potassium pump for optimal cellular function and regeneration with special reference to the vascular tissues is presented and discussed."

Already forgot this 29 years old article! The floor gas sodium-potassium pump (anaerobic turbo pump) is not enough, our cells are dying.
And I have:

Sandor Z.: Equivalency law in the metal requirement of the living organisms.
Acta Alimentaria 27 (4): 389-395. 1998.

This equivalency law is a simple chemical rule: The alkaline metal requirement (potassium + sodium) is chemically equivalent with that of polyvalent metals (calcium + magnesium + zinc + iron etc.). Because, is a strict chemical stoichiometrical rule of the cation exchange processes is that they proceed with the exchange of an equivalent amount of positively charged counter-ions. The counter-ions of the polyvalent metals in our body = sodium + potassium. The metal content of the breast milk proves this law surprisingly well.
This article is 16 years old, but nobody deals with (cares about) him!

Less counter-ion = trouble, much counter-ion = trouble, very much counter-ion = catastrophe, especially together with lactic acid formation. 

2006 WHO
on page 26:
"Several national and international agencies recommend individual dietary sodium intakes of no more than 100 mmol/day (6 g salt/day) and in some cases no more than 65 mmol/day (4 g salt/day). Two WHO expert consultations recommended that the population average for salt consumption should be < 5 g/day (WHO, 1983; WHO/FAO, 2003). While well below the average salt consumption in most countries, this recommendation reflects a pragmatic compromise since well-conducted trials clearly indicate that even greater sodium reductions (to 50–60 mmol/day) would achieve greater health benefits. (Denton, 1982; WHO – International Society of Hypertension, 1999; Sacks et al, 2001; He & MacGregor, 2004) Additionally, numerous countries worldwide have set adequate intake levels for sodium. In Australia and New Zealand the adequate intake for adults for sodium was set at 460–920 mg/day (20–40 mmol/day) to ensure that basic nutritional requirements are met and to allow for adequate intakes of other nutrients (Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand, 2005)."
( )
This compromise is a pact with the enemy! Weapons is delivered for the entropy law (by turbo Na/K pump)!
The high sodium intake = we deliver weapons and ammunition for our fiercest enemy.
Who uses it without hesitation - against us.
This fiercest enemy = The LAW of ENTROPY (the second law of thermodynamics).
(I learned from biochemistry, we use about one third of our total energy expenditure against the entropy.)

And the law of entropy destroys the order in us anyway.

Searching in 12 book set of DRI (more than 5000 pages, and about 600 references in the chapter 6; Sodium and Chloride ) no hits for entropy, and the sodium-potassium pump is only some empty phrases.

Nobody knows, or nobody dares to write it down, that the official recommendations are bad?
The optimal sodium intake is somewhere between 460 and 920 mg/day (current Australian, but rather close to 460 mg/day). All mmol sodium (23 mg) swallowed unnecessarily, uses it the energy of 2x1020 pieces of ATP molecules. But, only if the sodium ions only one times, and only one cell of ours diffuses! But (I think) more thousand times, and from many thousand of our cells it is necessary to remove it, while finally flows out from us! Every mmol excess sodium and the wrong sodium-potassium ratio (and other wrong ratios) enhances the entropy in our body!
The entropy is our number one public enemy on every individual level (physical and mental health) and on social level - globally. Our entire life and our history is a continuous war against entropy. And we nourish the entropy in our every cells, but the health scientists do not talk about this. And this is a fatal error.
About entropy:
 In WHO Fact Sheet 311:
It is not written down, that the first reason of the fatness: is the high salt (sodium) intake!
The salt (the high sodium intake) is a deceitfully strong appetizer!
Achieves his extraordinary effect by turbo mode (floor gas) of the sodium-potassium pump. Cuts, devours the energy (ATP and glucose and glycogen) and produces lactic acid. Consequently, generates a very strong and long term hunger (nutritional) stimulus. Because of this, we swallow more calories (unnecessary surplus calories), as we can burn it. And we drink after, many sugary drinks. This is unnecessary surplus calorie too. We get fat!
We eat a lot because of the much salt (high sodium content) in our foods!
But, the much sodium does not fatten everybody.
So-called flavour enhancers (Is this their real name really?):
E621: monosodium glutamate (MSG)
E627: disodium guanylate   
E631: disodium inosinate
I ate these already :-(
E622: monopotassium glutamate
E628: dipotassium guanylate   
E632: dipotassium inosinate
I saw these only on the internet :-( 
From the Fact sheet:

"How can overweight and obesity be reduced? At the individual level, people can:
limit energy intake from total fats;
increase consumption of fruit and vegetables, as well as legumes, whole grains and nuts;
limit the intake of sugars;
engage in regular physical activity;
achieve energy balance and a healthy weight....."
They omitted the most important one! The radical reduction of salt intake!
"The food industry can play a significant role in promoting healthy diets by: reducing the fat, sugar and salt content of processed foods; ensuring that healthy and nutritious choices are...."

 The most important one - the salt reduction - here only tertiary task?
Current models (or more present models) for obesity are not correct! And the recommendations and strategies against the obesity are not good likewise!

It's now clear that the energy that we could save (by low physical activity), the entropy law swallows it - by our "floor gas" Na/K pump. And it's now clear that we (Westerners) eat (with a lot) much more, as we can burn - because the much sodium (salt) in our foods!
Paradox, but after all fact: the entropy law makes one fat with it in order to steal the energy.
Taps it our energy supply. And generates hunger with this. The law of entropy fattens us so.
Maybe, that I discovered something again?
May be even in the joinery ....
I give a name to him:
Sodium Paradox.

Unbelievable, that this was not written down yet.
Though so much evident, that to prove neither necessary.

If somebody doubts the above ones. I have three requests to it:
Think onto the Occam's razor,
show it, where I made a mistake,
give a real (better) explanation or solution.

The alarm bells peal for a long time, but nothing the situation improved!
We overeat (devour), we get sick, and we die, while millions are starving!

Some forgotten (ignored) articles

Saulo Klahr and Neal S. Bricker
Energetics of Anaerobic Sodium Transport by the Fresh Water Turtle Bladder
J Gen Physiol. 1965 March 1; 48(4): 571–580. PMCID: PMC2195440 Full text:


"Certain of the metabolic events associated with anaerobic sodium transport by the isolated bladder of the fresh water turtle have been investigated. The data suggest that energy for this transport arises from glycolysis and that endogenous glycogen was the major and perhaps the sole source of substrate. The rate of anaerobic glycolysis, as determined by lactate formation, correlates well with the rate as determined by glycogen utilization. Using lactate formation as the index of anaerobic glycolysis, a linear relationship was observed between glycolysis and net anaerobic sodium transport. In the absence of sodium transport, glycolysis decreased by approximately 45 per cent. Tissue ATP concentrations were maintained at about the same level under anaerobic as under aerobic conditions. Finally if it is assumed that in the conversion of glycogen to lactate anaerobically, 3 moles of ATP are generated per mole of glucose residue, an average of over 15 equivalents of sodium were transported for every mole of ATP generated."
Coupling of anaerobic metabolism to anaerobic sodium transport: a high energy intermediate.
Nature 1968, 218(5143):769-770

Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Kreislaufforschung 1964;30:211-5 (PMID:14275807) (But no abstract supplied)
And in 2000
Mechanisms of sodium pump regulation
Alex G. Therien and Rhoda Blostein
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol September 1,
2000 vol. 279 no. 3 C541-C566 
362 references!

and in 2008
Shaun F. Morrison, Kazuhiro Nakamura and Christopher J. Madden
Central control of thermogenesis in mammals
July 1, 2008 Experimental Physiology, 93, 773-797.
doi: 10.1113/expphysiol.2007.041848 
~ 180 references!

35 and 43 years after Klahr & Bricker and 3 years after Christopher B. Scott (2005, see later) and nothing about entropy, (floor gas) sodium-potassium pump, anaerobic glycolysis and lactic acid.
How does the knowledge (which was found already once or
more) disappear?

Maiken Nedergaard, Steven A. Goldman, Smita Desai, and William A. Pulsinelli
Acid-induced death in neurons and glia
The Journal of Neuroscience, August 1991, 11(8): 2489-2497 of Energy_04_Acid-Induced Cell Death.pdf

From the article:
Lactic acidosis has been proposed to be one factor promoting cell death following cerebral ischemia. We have previously demonstrated that cultured neurons and glia are killed by relatively brief (10 min) exposure to acidic solutions of pH < 5 (Goldman et al., 1989).”
"Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia induces lactic acid formation trough the accentuation of anaerobic glycolysis. The magnitude of this lactic acid accumulation depends largely upon the preischemic glucose and glycogen concentrations of the affected tissue (Smith et al., 1986). Local accumulation of lactic acid to cytotoxic levels may play a causal role in the genesis of brain infarction following cerebral ischemia (Meyer and Yamaguchi, 1977; Siemkowitz and Hansen, 1978; Pulsinelli et al., 1982; Nedergaard, 1987). Several authors have addressed directly the issue of acid-induced cell death."
--- ---
Richard Lynna, John Harvey: The decline of the world's IQ
Intelligence Volume 36, Issue 2, March–April 2008, Pages 112–120 
Michael A. Woodleya, Jan te Nijenhuisc, Raegan Murphyd:
Were the Victorians cleverer than us? The decline in general intelligence estimated from a meta-analysis of the slowing of simple reaction time
Intelligence, Available online 7 May 2013

The Sodium Induced Cellular Anaerobic Glycolysis produces much lactic acid. The salted humanity - suffering from Sodium-Induced Disorder Syndrome (SIDS) - degenerates and will be idiotic. Together with the IQ, the average moral level decreases, and (possibly) all this will accelerate. And this disintegrates the society. The salted road drives the humanity into anarchy and chaos.

Peskind ER, Jensen CF, Pascualy M, Tsuang D, Cowley D, Martin DC, Wilkinson CW, Raskind MA.:
Sodium lactate and hypertonic sodium chloride induce equivalent panic incidence, panic symptoms, and hypernatremia in panic disorder.
Biol Psychiatry. 1998 Nov 15; 44(10):1007-16. 
Despite that nothing about the Na-K pump in the article (why??), this is a very interesting work. Who is ill and who is healthy? What is normal? Why we eat the salt (or, why we like it)? Possible, this is a consequence of our devolution and is a consequence (a symptom) of Sodium-Induced Disorder Syndrome? Why do the urban mice (and free-living animals) not eat salt?
The sodium-induced panic is a disorder really?

Thermogenesis induced by osmotic stimulation of the intestines in the rat
Toshimasa Osaka, Akiko Kobayashi, and Shuji Inoue
J Physiol. 2001 April 1; 532(Pt 1): 261–269. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.0261g.x
(Received 21 August 2000; accepted after
revision 4 December 2000)

From the article:

"Intestinal infusion of glucose solutions increased the metabolic rate, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and Tc dose dependently (Fig. 1A-C). The metabolic rate rose gradually during the infusion of 20 % glucose from a baseline level of 186 ± 7 J kg−0.75 min−1 to a peak of 217 ± 6 J kg−0.75 min−1 at 65 min and slowly returned to the baseline level within 3 h (Fig. 1A). The energy expenditure induced by 20 % glucose was 2.79 ± 0.45 kJ kg−0.75 * for 3 h (Fig. 4). The RER increased from 0.82 ± 0.01 to 0.92 ± 0.01 at 115 min (Fig. 1B), suggesting** the oxidation of carbohydrate during the thermogenic response to the glucose infusion. The increase in RER lasted more than 3 h. As a consequence of the thermogenesis, Tc increased from 36.73 ± 0.12 °C to a peak of 37.16 ± 0.07 °C at 95 min (Fig. 1C). Tail skin temperature increased less than 0.5 °C after the glucose infusion. Infusion of 10 % glucose also increased the metabolic rate to a peak of 206 ± 7 J kg−0.75 min−1 at 60 min, and the effect lasted more than 2 h. In spite of the long-lasting increase in metabolic rate, the increase in RER terminated within 80 min. Tc reached a peak of 36.87 ± 0.11 °C at 90 min. Infusion of 5 % glucose induced small but significant increases in metabolic rate and RER, but it did not increase Tc significantly. The energy expended was 1.86 ± 0.39 kJ kg−0.75 after 10 % glucose* and 0.32 ± 0.24 kJ kg−0.75 after 5 % glucose (Fig. 4). However, energy expenditure as a percentage of energy intake was not statistically different among the rats administered different concentrations of glucose solution (20 % glucose, 11.2 ± 1.8 %; 10 % glucose, 14.9 ± 3.1 %; 5 % glucose, 5.2 ± 4.0 %)."
"Intestinal infusion of hypertonic NaCl solutions also increased the metabolic rate dose dependently (Fig. 2A). The metabolic rate rose during the 10 min infusion period of 3.6 % NaCl, stayed at a plateau level of ≈205 J kg−0.75 min−1 between 35 and 120 min and then slowly declined but was still significantly higher than the baseline level at 3 h. The energy expenditure induced by 3.6 % NaCl was 3.49 ± 0.33 kJ kg−0.75, which was not significantly different from that induced by the infusion of 20 % glucose*. Administration of 1.8 % NaCl also increased the metabolic rate, to a plateau level of ≈190 J kg−0.75 min−1 between 45 and 120 min. Energy expenditure induced by 1.8 % NaCl was 2.91 ± 0.59 kJ kg−0.75, which was not significantly different from that induced by the infusion of 10 % glucose*. Administration of 0.9 % NaCl did not increase the metabolic rate. The RER did not change after infusion of any of the NaCl solutions*** (Fig. 2B). Tc increased from 36.74 ± 0.06 °C to a peak of 37.20 ± 0.11 °C at 85 min after the infusion of 3.6 % NaCl and to a peak of 36.89 ± 0.11 °C at 125 min after the infusion of 1.8 % NaCl (Fig. 2C). Tc did not increase after the infusion of 0.9 % NaCl."

Interesting statements, because: * 3.49 >> 2.79 and 2.91 >> 1.86 and 2.91 > 2.79; and: ** only suggesting?  

***This is a very old cellular anaerobic mechanism - before free oxygen molecules on earth.
I give a name to this:
Sodium Induced Cellular Anaerobic Glycolysis = SICAG
Or: Sodium Induced Cellular Anaerobic Thermogenesis = SICAT

Would be valuable a similar experiment with seals or dolphins. The surplus sodium induces the anaerobic or enhances the aerobic pathway?
Others wrote this down presumably already, but this is kept in secret, or ...?
We produce lactic acid even in our brain.
The scientific elite makes fool of the whole humanity.

From the effects of 0,9 and 1,8 % NaCl infusion, I can suppose, anaerobic glycolysis begin in an average 70 kg man from ~ 6-7 g dose of salt. I would dare to bet that this was examined in similar (but oral) human experiments already, but the results are kept secret.
The global censorship works efficiently!

And from the above results roughly calculable:
The salted humanity squanders the energy of at least 100 million tons
of food annually, to get rid of the sodium swallowed unnecessarily!

The oxidative pathway produces from 1 molecule glucose 36-38 pieces of ATP.
But the anaerobic glycolysis produces from 1 molecule glucose 2 pieces of ATP only, and 2 pieces lactic acid molecule!

The salt-induced anaerobic energy (ATP) production consumed more glucose than the total resting metabolism of the rats, on the oxidative pathway.
( )

This article is "only" 12 years old, and no anaerobic energy expenditure of (turbo) Na/K pump, no lactic acid and no Entropy Law. Why???
LD50 of NaCl is 3 g/kg body weight. OGTT - ONaTT, and ECG (EKG), EEG, etc.?

Akiko Kobayashi
, Toshimasa Osaka, Shuji Inoue, and Shuichi Kimura
 Thermogenesis induced by intravenous infusion of hypertonic solutions in the rat
J Physiol. 2001 September 1; 535(Pt 2): 601–610. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.00601.x
(Received 4 December 2000; accepted after revision 9 May 2001)
(The two revisions may have been interesting stories.)

Links between dietary salt intake, renal salt handling, blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases.
Meneton P, Jeunemaitre X, de Wardener HE, MacGregor GA.
Physiol Rev. 2005 Apr; 85(2):679-715.

"Epidemiological, migration, intervention, and genetic studies in humans and animals provide very strong evidence of a causal link between high salt intake and high blood pressure. The mechanisms by which dietary salt increases arterial pressure are not fully understood, but they seem related to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt. From an evolutionary viewpoint, the human species is adapted to ingest and excrete < 1 g of salt per day, at least 10 times less than the average values currently observed in industrialized and urbanized countries. Independent of the rise in blood pressure, dietary salt also increases cardiac left ventricular mass, arterial thickness and stiffness, the incidence of strokes, and the severity of cardiac failure. Thus chronic exposure to a high-salt diet appears to be a major factor involved in the frequent occurrence of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in human populations."

414 references!


He FJ, MacGregor GA
A comprehensive review on salt and health and current experience of worldwide salt reduction programmes.
J Hum Hypertens. 2009 Jun;23(6):363-84. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2008.144. Epub 2008 Dec 25.

155 references!

And no sodium induced anaerobic glycolysis, no lactic acid and no (floor gas) sodium-potassium pump.
Codex Alimentarius Hungaricus 1-3/81-1 Certain bread and bakery products
Content regulation in most popular and cheapest white bread and in half-brown bread, onto dry matter:
Now, at least 15 g/kg of salt, and the permissible upper level is 28 g/kg of salt.
From 1 January 2015: at least 13 g/kg, and the upper level 25 g/kg,
and from 1 January 2018: at least 13 g/kg, and the upper level 23,5 g/kg.
This hungarian regulation is an irresponsible pact with the enemy, and ...!

15 g salt = 10 % of oral LD50 dose for 50 kg body weight, 28 g salt = 18.67 % of them.
Oral LD50 dose of (potassium cyanide) KCN = 5 mg/kg body weight.
For 50 kg body weight oral LD50 = 250 mg KCN.
What it would be called, if 25 - 46.67 mg/kg (10 - 18.67 % of LD50) of potassium cyanide would be mixed into the bread?

Niels Graudal
Commentary: Possible role of salt intake in the development of essential hypertension
Int. J. Epidemiol. (October 2005) 34 (5): 972-974. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyi016

From the end of the article: "... However, the randomized studies have shown an effect of sodium reduction not only on hypertension, but also of about 1 mm Hg in healthy, normotensive persons. 17,18 The new controversy is whether this effect, if applied to the whole population, would have a beneficial effect on the morbidity and mortality of the population and whether this unproven assumption should lead to a general recommendation of sodium reduction in the population.
It is tempting to end this commentary with another provocative citation from Chapman and Gibbons:1 ‘Many (articles) possess historical interest only. Others, while defective in some respects, contain suggestions that have led to later and more valuable work. Still others have had influence out of all proportion to their intrinsic work and are responsible for vast amounts of wasted research endeavour on the part of later investigators’. In that connection, considering that the salt controversy now is dealing with an effect size of about 1 mm Hg, one may ask, has it been worth 100 years of effort?"
Yes, the scientific elite is responsible for vast amounts of wasted research endeavour, but this viewpoint is too narrow. 

Salt intakes around the world: implications for public health.

Brown IJ, Tzoulaki I, Candeias V, Elliott P.
Int J Epidemiol. 2009 Jun;38(3):791-813. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyp139. Epub 2009 Apr 7.

From the abstract:
“BACKGROUND: High levels of dietary sodium (consumed as common salt, sodium chloride) are associated with raised blood pressure and adverse cardiovascular health. Despite this, public health efforts to reduce sodium consumption remain limited to a few countries. Comprehensive, contemporaneous sodium intake data from around the world are needed to inform national/international public health initiatives to reduce sodium consumption.

RESULTS: Sodium intakes around the world are well in excess of physiological need (i.e. 10-20 mmol/day). Most adult populations have mean sodium intakes > 100 mmol/day, and for many (particularly the Asian countries) mean intakes are > 200 mmol/day. Possible exceptions include estimates from Cameroon, Ghana, Samoa, Spain, Taiwan, Tanzania, Uganda and Venezuela, though methodologies were sub-optimal and samples were not nationally representative. Sodium intakes were commonly > 100 mmol/day in children over 5 years old, and increased with age. In European and Northern American countries, sodium intake is dominated by sodium added in manufactured foods (approximately 75% of intake). Cereals and baked goods were the single largest contributor to dietary sodium intake in UK and US adults. In Japan and China, salt added at home (in cooking and at the table) and soy sauce were the largest sources.

CONCLUSIONS: Unfavourably high sodium intakes remain prevalent around the world. Sources of dietary sodium vary largely worldwide. If policies for salt reduction at the population level are to be effective, policy development and implementation needs to target the main source of dietary sodium in the various populations."

And from the article:
"Research has shown that lower sodium concentration in foods can be readily achieved; one-quarter reduction in the sodium content of sliced white bread can be delivered largely unnoticed in the population [111]. In 2000, ~ 7.1 million deaths worldwide were attributed to non-optimal BP [112,113]. Lowering the salt intake of individuals around the world is expected to shift the population distribution of BP towards more optimal levels, thus preventing thousands of deaths from CVD and stroke, and reducing the burden on overstretched health services. ... Sodium reduction is one of the easiest to implement, cost-effective and efficient ways to reduce the global burden of CVD and thus should not be overlooked [115]."

Oh, finally, this is the best recommendation, but not the perfect. 10-20 mmol/day = 230-460 mg sodium/day. And are 156 references in the article but nothing about the (floor gas) sodium-potassium pump and anaerobic glycolysis and lactic acid and nothing about the metal content (sodium and others) of the human milk.
The unnecessarily swallowed sodium increases the incidence of all illnesses without any exception! How many people died in the last 5 decades?
The salt (sodium) caused and causes the largest holocaust in human history.
The scientific elite does astonishing irresponsibility!
Wake up! If nobody knows the enemy (because it is kept secret) nobody can battle against it.

Letter to the Editor
Kidney International (2007) 71, 85–86. doi:10.1038/
Editorial on the politics of salt and blood pressure
M F Jacobson

"To the Editor: The editorial on the politics of salt and blood pressure was exceptionally prescient in recognizing the influence of a trade lobby, the Salt Institute, on policies (Kidney Int 2006; 69: 1707–1708). In one regard, though, the editorial conveyed a common misconception: that current levels of salt are necessary for preservative functions.
We have analyzed the sodium contents of competing brands within the same category of foods.1 In most categories we found wide variations. For instance, Johnsonville Original breakfast links (sausages) contain twice as much sodium as Jimmy Dean Pork Original links (1110 mg vs 570 mg). Banquet macaroni and cheese frozen dinner has twice as much sodium as Stouffer's Lean Cuisine macaroni and cheese dinner (440 mg vs 230 mg). Those comparisons prove that many companies could greatly reduce sodium levels without endangering health or consumer acceptance.
Although the Salt Institute embraces the Data Quality Act, it fears the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. That law requires that substances in food be restricted to safe levels. However, salt is considered by the US Food and Drug Administration to be 'generally recognized as safe', which means that levels cannot be restricted.2 The Center for Science in the Public Interest in 1978 petitioned the Food and Drug Administration to revoke the generally recognized as safe status and limit salt, especially in the biggest sources of sodium. (The US Department of Agriculture should do the same for meat and poultry products.) After the Food and Drug Administration failed to take action, Center for Science in the Public Interest sued the Food and Drug Administration (unsuccessfully) in 1982 and 2005, and later in 2005 again petitioned the agency to protect the public health.
Halving sodium levels in packaged and restaurant foods could save 150 000 lives per year.3 It is unfortunate that government health authorities have not shown the will to act.
1. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Salt Assault 2005. 
2. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Salt: The Forgotten Killer 2005.
3. Havas S, Roccella EJ, Lenfant C. Reducing the public health burden from elevated blood pressure levels in the United States by lowering intake of dietary sodium. Am J Pub Health 2004; 94: 19–22.

The government health authorities do astonishing irresponsibility! And this is a global problem.
And the CSPI is weak, because they do not use the
already existing (forgotten, ignored, censored) knowledges. And this is also an astonishing irresponsibility (and/or astonishing ignorance).

Role of diabetes, hypertension, and cigarette smoking on atherosclerosis

Ram K. Mathur

J Cardiovasc Dis Res. 2010 Apr-Jun; 1(2): 64–68.

From the article:

 " ... However, they consume about 4 g of NaCl per day, which is too high. .... "

And:  "... To determine the mechanism of thermogenesis, Osaka et al.[-] infused hypertonic solution of glucose, NaCl, fructose, and amino acids in the intestine of urethane-anesthetized rats. A higher core body temperature was observed with increasing amounts of the above-mentioned nutrients. Furthermore, an intravenous injection (IV) of these nutrients also caused thermogenesis accompanied by an increase in plasma osmolality. However, thermogenesis caused by IV was lesser than that caused by the intestinal infusion of NaCl and the solutions of the other above-mentioned nutrients, suggesting an involvement of intestinal osmoreceptors. This further suggests that it is unlikely that IV and intestinal osmotic stimulation induces identical mechanisms of thermogenesis. However, it does show that an increase in the plasma osmolality, within the physiological range, elicits thermogenesis. The mechanism of thermogenesis is not clear. However, it may involve intestinal osmoreceptors. The authors also found that food intake stimulated the metabolic rate of the whole body and increased the core body temperature. The core body temperature is measured by inserting a thermister in the anus. The skin or cutaneous body temperature is measured by a thermister taped to the lateral surface of a rat's tail. The mechanism of core and skin temperatures are regulated differently.[,] It is this thermogenesis that is responsible for the generation of atherosclerotic plaque. ..." 

From the end of the article:

 "Patients are advised to stay away from fatty foods, which obviously does not help because fatty meal is not the cause for atherosclerosis. Therefore, the researchers should first examine the cause of the disease before trying to cure it; otherwise, we will be treating symptoms rather than curing the disease itself. ... F
inally, this field requires some broad theories and hypotheses explaining the involvement of foods, diabetes, hypertension, cigarette smoking, and others in the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. We have a mission but are lacking the vision. That is why we have not made any progress even though we have worked on it for more than 50 years."

9 years and 45 years after Klahr & Bricker, and not clear?  Floor gas Na/K pump and kidney use more energy (ATP) caused by NaCl! Must "burn" ANAEROBIC from the glycogen reserve for the excess ADP --> ATP reactions! And see Henningsen 1985, our cells are dying.
 Was the mechanism not clear really? Or the scientific elite did not allow it to enlighten?
Theories and hypotheses are not needed, but it is necessary to use the already existing knowledges!

And requires researches in the following directions:

1. Energy expenditure and capacity of the sodium-potassium pump (including active transport processes of chloride ions, and energy expenditure of the kidney) in relation of sodium (salt) and potassium intake (set optimal intakes and optimal Na/K ratio)
2. Consequences of the sodium induced anaerobic glycolysis (and lactic acid) for example in the brain cells
3. Optimal intake ratio between polyvalent metals and alkali metals (considering the chemical rule of the cation exchange processes, and considering the metal contents of the mature human milk)
4. It is necessary to clear - the much sodium (salt) is a strong appetizer, and is poison
5. Entropy, energy and regeneration

The salt = we burn the candle on both of his ends. The average lifetime of our cells shortens.
Soon (faster) the telomeres run out. Our aging accelerates, and we will die soon.

 And it is necessary to think so, as physicist, chemical engineer, biochemist and evolution biologist.
Instead of sonorous "reducing salt intake" programs and instead of taxes severe laws necessary.
Now, in 2014: American Heart Association: "Exactly how atherosclerosis begins or what causes it isn't known, but some theories have been proposed. Many scientists think atherosclerosis starts because the innermost layer of the artery becomes damaged." 
Would be enough to read carefully and to understand only 3 articles: Klahr & Bricker 1965, Henningsen 1985, Osaka et al. 2001.
And would be clear, that it's possible to teach this even to kindergartener.


Forgotten and/or ignored or not understood articles, works, facts, evidences and wrong education etc. The blind watchmaker learned well the physics first, then the chemistry. And dealt with biochemistry then only. But never forgot what he learned already once.

Association of Dietary, Circulating, and Supplement Fatty Acids With Coronary Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Rajiv Chowdhury, MD, PhD; Samantha Warnakula, MPhil*; Setor Kunutsor, MD, MSt*; Francesca Crowe, PhD; Heather A. Ward, PhD; Laura Johnson, PhD; Oscar H. Franco, MD, PhD; Adam S. Butterworth, PhD; Nita G. Forouhi, MRCP, PhD; Simon G. Thompson, FMedSci; Kay-Tee Khaw, FMedSci; Dariush Mozaffarian, MD, DrPH; John Danesh, FRCP*; and Emanuele Di Angelantonio, MD, PhD
Ann Intern Med. 2014;160(6):398-406-406. doi:10.7326/M13-1788 

From the article: “Conclusion: Current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low consumption of total saturated fats.
Yes, it is clear and logical - because the real risk factor (the initial cause) is the censored sodium-induced disorder (syndrome).
What Next In The Saturated Fat, Cholesterol And Statin Controversy
Medication does not reduce risk of recurrent CV events among patients with diabetes
"Aleglitazar use was associated with increased risk of kidney abnormalities, bone fractures, gastrointestinal bleeding, and hypoglycemia (low blood sugars). "These findings do not support the use of aleglitazar in this setting with a goal of reducing cardiovascular risk," the authors conclude."

Blood Glucose Doesn't Predict Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease
“Conclusions and Relevance In a study of individuals without known CVD or diabetes, additional assessment of HbA1c values in the context of CVD risk assessment provided little incremental benefit for prediction of CVD risk.”
Fructose, glucose, sugar is sugar
Dispelled - high fructose corn syrup causal link to obesity
Combo of overweight, high sodium intake speeds cell aging in teens
"Previous research found that protective ends on chromosomes (telomeres) naturally shorten with age, but the process is accelerated by smoking, lack of physical activity and high body fat. The current study is the first to examine the impact of sodium intake on telomere length."

This is a logical consequence of Sodium-Induced Disorder (with high and ideal BMI too, and not only in teens). Instead of research costs, it is necessary to use the existing knowledge.

Kacie M Dickinson, Peter M Clifton, and Jennifer B Keogh:
Endothelial function is impaired after a high-salt meal in healthy subjects
Am J Clin Nutr March 2011 vol. 93 no. 3. 500-505

From the article:
"Endothelial dysfunction, considered to be an initial step in the development of atherosclerosis (6), has been shown with higher salt intakes (7, 8). Dietary salt reduction has been shown to improve endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in a chronic study (9). However, the mechanisms relating salt and endothelial dysfunction are still not clear."

26 years after Henningsen, and "still not clear"?
The elite of the health science made experimental animals from the humanity. And all of the humanity suffers from Sodium-Induced Disorder Syndrome (SIDS)!
The science of salt is the number one perfect example onto the blunders, mistakes and irresponsibilities of the modern health sciences.

After Sanford Miller in - Gary Taubes: The (Political) Science of Salt,  Science 14 August 1998: Vol. 281 no. 5379 pp. 898-907


Midgley et al., 1996. Meta-analysis of 56 clinical trials concludes that benefit from salt reduction
is small and does not support current dietary recommendations.

Cutler et al., 1997. Meta-analysis of 32 clinical trials concludes that benefit of salt reduction
is larger and does support current dietary recommendations.

Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group, 1997 (TOHP II).
Clinical trial in 2400 subjects indicates that long-term reductions in salt intake are hard to maintain and result in little or no reduction in blood pressure.

Appel et al., 1997 (DASH). Clinical trial of 459 people shows that dietary factors other than sodium have a much greater effect on blood pressure.

Graudal et al., 1998. Meta-analysis of 114 clinical trials does not support a general recommendation to reduce salt intake."

This not anymore science, but narrow-minded stupidity.
Indisputable and inevitable consequence, that the unnecessary sodium increases the incidence of all illnesses!
The newest touchstones of the meaningless pseudo-scientific salt debate:

May 2013.
The (political) science of salt revisited.
Graudal N, Jürgens G.
Comment on Effect of lower sodium intake on health: systematic review and meta-analyses. [BMJ. 2013]
BMJ 2013; 346 doi: (Published 3 May 2013)

August 2013.
David A. McCarron, Alexandra G. Kazaks, Joel C. Geerling, Judith S. Stern and Niels A. Graudal:
Normal Range of Human Dietary Sodium Intake: A Perspective Based on 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion Worldwide
Am J Hypertens (2013) doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpt139 First published online: August 26, 2013
From the abstact: "As documented here, this range is determined by physiologic needs rather than environmental factors. Future guidelines should be based on this biologically determined range."
Without entropy and without (aerobic and anaerobic) energy expenditure of sodium-potassium pump and without the metal content of human milk and without of an evolutionary viewpoint - this is not science! The "biologically determined range" is in the human milk!
Again a new portion of pseudoscientific garbage:
Niels Graudal, Gesche Jürgens, Bo Baslund and Michael H. Alderman:
Compared With Usual Sodium Intake, Low- and Excessive-Sodium Diets Are Associated With Increased Mortality: A Meta-Analysis
Am J Hypertens (2014) doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpu028 
First published online: March 20, 2014
I wrote some e-mails to Niels Albert Graudal, and I have 2 responses.
Here is our correspondence: 

The American Journal of Hypertension is a pseudo-scientific dump. Editor-in-Chief: Michael H. Alderman. 
About Alderman (2007):  
"Alderman's flawed report damages public health severely worldwide. Medical journals should pay more attention to the need for impeccable quality in an alarming report, bearing in mind that the media will give it special attention and disseminate it widely."

Really, the IQ and moral level decline worldwide! Why big data & fancy statistics aren't science?
Eight (no, nine!) problems with big data 
"By combining the power of modern computing with the plentiful data of the digital era, it promises to solve virtually any problem - crime, public health, the evolution of grammar, the perils of dating - just by crunching the numbers."
The education is wrong, the researchers are not thinking, the existing knowledge is not used (it is ignored and censored), but statistical data are collected (instead of real sciences). Would be better to learn more and to think more, because statistical analyses cannot overwrite scientific laws and facts!
D.L. Katz and S. Meller
Can We Say What Diet Is Best for Health?
Annual Review of Public Health
Vol. 35: 83-103 (Volume publication date March 2014
DOI: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182351 

Are 167 references in the article, but no hit for: entropy, salt, Na/K pump, aerobic, anaerobic and only one hit for sodium.
Note this one is important: "... dramatically different ratio of potassium to sodium ..." (in relation to Paleolithic eating). 
However, this is a worthless article.

Christopher B Scott
Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis
Nutrition & Metabolism 2005, 2:14 doi:10.1186/1743-7075-2-14

From the article:

"The second law describes how energy is transferred from one form to another. For example heat, as an expression of energy, always flows in one direction – from hot to cold. Other ways of stating this are that energy flows "downhill" or, from a state of lower entropy to one of higher entropy. Entropy represents energy that is not available to perform work so that simply put, energy transfer is inefficient. Inefficiency also appears in the form of heat production that is usually discarded into the environment. ...
Brisk activity of the sodium pump necessitates a rapid rate of ATP re-synthesis. If this is true then it is important to recognize that in some cells* lactate with presumed heat production is better correlated with sodium and potassium pumping than is oxygen uptake [29]...
It seems logical to conclude that most mammalian energy expenditure does come from aerobic metabolism but the evolution of a metabolic acceleration with concomitant heat production comes from both anaerobic and aerobic pathways. The relative contributions of each pathway to whole-body thermogenesis are not known."

This already something, but not too much. (SICAG?)
Why *"... in some cells ..." only?
In every cells, this is true (generated by high sodium intakes)! Would this be the "progress" of the health science over 40 years (1965 - 2005)? 

Franco Valenza, Marta Pizzocri, Valentina Salice, Giorgio Chevallard, Tommaso Fossali, Silvia Coppola,
Sara Froio, Federico Polli, Stefano Gatti, Francesco Fortunato, Giacomo P. Comi, Luciano Gattinoni
Sodium Bicarbonate Treatment during Transient or Sustained Lactic Acidemia in Normoxic and Normotensive Rats
PLoS ONE 2012 7(9): e46035. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046035

Boyd JH, Walley KR.
Is there a role for sodium bicarbonate in treating lactic acidosis from shock?
Current Opinion in Critical Care. 2008 Aug;14(4):379-83. doi: 10.1097/MCC.0b013e3283069d5c

"PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bicarbonate therapy for severe lactic acidosis remains a controversial therapy.

RECENT FINDINGS: The most recent 2008 Surviving Sepsis guidelines strongly recommend against the use of bicarbonate in patients with pH at least 7.15, while deferring judgment in more severe acidemia. We review the mechanisms causing lactic acidosis in the critically ill and the scientific rationale behind treatment with bicarbonate.

SUMMARY: There is little rationale or evidence for the use of bicarbonate therapy for lactic acidosis due to shock. We agree with the Surviving Sepsis guidelines recommendation against the use of bicarbonate for lactic acidosis for pH at least 7.15 and we further recommend a lower target pH of 7.00 or less. If bicarbonate is used, consideration must be given to slow infusion and a plan for clearing the CO2 that is produced and measuring and correcting ionized calcium as the resultant 10% drop may decrease cardiac and vascular contractility and responsiveness to catecholamines. When continuous renal replacement therapy is used during severe acidosis, we recommend bicarbonate-based replacement fluid over citrate as citrate may increase the strong ion gap. Effective therapy of lactic acidosis due to shock is to reverse the cause."

Bicarbonate = sodium bicarbonate = floor gas sodium-potassium pump = anaerobic glycolysis = more lactic acid!

Not controversial. I think it is bad, wrong therapy! 

Lim S.
Metabolic acidosis.
Acta Medica Indonesiana 2007 Jul-Sep;39(3):145-50.

"Acute metabolic acidosis is frequently encountered in critically ill patients. Metabolic acidosis can occur as a result of either the accumulation of endogenous acids that consumes bicarbonate (high anion gap metabolic acidosis) or loss of bicarbonate from the gastrointestinal tract or the kidney (hyperchloremic or normal anion gap metabolic acidosis). The cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis includes lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, renal failure and intoxication with ethylene glycol, methanol, salicylate and less commonly with pyroglutamic acid (5-oxoproline), propylene glycole or djenkol bean (gjenkolism). The most common causes of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis are gastrointestinal bicarbonate loss, renal tubular acidosis, drugs-induced hyperkalemia, early renal failure and administration of acids. The appropriate treatment of acute metabolic acidosis, in particular organic form of acidosis such as lactic acidosis, has been very controversial. The only effective treatment for organic acidosis is cessation of acid production via improvement of tissue oxygenation. Treatment of acute organic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate failed to reduce the morbidity and mortality despite improvement in acid-base parameters. Further studies are required to determine the optimal treatment strategies for acute metabolic acidosis."

V Vitek and R A Cowley
Blood lactate in the prognosis of various forms of shock.
Annals of Surgery 1971 February; 173(2): 308–313.

Experimental and Clinical Studies on Lactate and Pyruvate as Indicators of the Severity of Acute Circulatory Failure (Shock)
Circulation. 1970; 41: 989-1001 doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.41.6.989


And something about the floor gas sodium-potassium pump? Why?

New, in 2013!
WHO. Guideline: Sodium intake for adults and children.
Geneva, World Health Organization (WHO), 2012.

On page 2 (10 of 56):
"WHO recommends a reduction in sodium intake to control blood pressure in children (strong recommendation). The recommended maximum level of intake of 2 g/day sodium in adults should be adjusted downward based on the energy requirements of children relative to those of adults."

Why downward? Why not from mature human milk? 

On page 3 (11 of 56):
"Addressing the optimal ratio of sodium to potassium was outside the scope of this guideline; however, if an individual consumes the amount of sodium recommended in this guideline and the amount of potassium recommended in the WHO guideline on potassium intake, the ratio of sodium to potassium would be approximately one to one, which is considered beneficial for health (12)."

and on page 19 (27 of 56):
"These recommendations do not address the optimal sodium to potassium ratio; however, if this guideline and the WHO guideline on potassium intake are achieved, the molar ratio of sodium to potassium would be approximately one to one."


on page 3 (11 of 52):
"... however, if an individual consumes sodium at the levels recommended in the WHO guideline on sodium intake, and potassium as recommended in the current guideline, the ratio of sodium to potassium would be approximately one to one, which is considered beneficial for health (8)."

and on page 16 (24 of 52):
"These recommendations do not address the optimal ratio of sodium to potassium; however, if this guideline and the WHO guideline on sodium consumption are achieved, the molar ratio of sodium to potassium would be approximately one to one."

(12) = (8) WHO Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic disease. Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. Geneva, World Health Organization (WHO), 2003

From this report, on page 90 (100 of 160):
"Potassium Adequate dietary intake of potassium lowers blood pressure and is protective against stroke and cardiac arrythmias. Potassium intake should be at a level which will keep the sodium to potassium ratio close to 1.0, i.e. a daily potassium intake level of 70-80 mmol per day. This may be achieved through adequate daily consumption of fruits and vegetables."

Why close to 1.0? Where is the exact (original) reference of this statement? Has it any traces of strength of evidence? From where did they pick this ratio out? I never saw such ratio in mature human milk! Only in the colostrum is this molar ratio close to one to one, but this has an evolutionary explanation. See below, from the data of Yamawaki et al. 2005 (from more data, the average Na:K molar ratio is closer to 1:2.5 in mature human milk).

Days of lactation 1 - 5 6 - 10 11 - 20 21 - 89 90 - 180 181 - 365
K/Na molar ratio 1,30 1,73 1,55 1,97 2,39 2,19

The WHO misleads all of the humanity. This is not science, but charlatanry. This is a typical pseudo-scientific method.
Were stupid the evolution, and the natural selection? We are better, than the blind watchmaker?

And logical inferences: In the production of the gamete more the mistake in the copying of DNA, and the error correcting mechanism work worse. The human genome is degenerating.
The salt is the greatest blunder of the Homo Sapiens. Fatal error!

Now in Hungary, no recommendation for sodium - why?
And here: no recommendations for Na and K - why? 
The old hungarian recommendation for adults for potassium: 3500 mg/day, and the new: 2000 mg/day, and the new WHO: at least 3510 mg/day.
Controversial chaotic situation.

Sandra L. Titus, James A. Wells & Lawrence J. Rhoades:
Repairing research integrity
Nature 453, 980-982 (19 June 2008) doi:10.1038/453980a; Published online 18 June 2008
"A survey suggests that many research misconduct incidents in the United States go unreported to the Office of Research Integrity. Sandra L. Titus, James A. Wells and Lawrence J. Rhoades say it's time to change that."

Klahr and Bricker 1965, Henningsen 1985, Sandor 1998, Osaka et al 2001, Mathur 2010, WHO 2003 - 2013.
Five decades, and what did the scientific elite do meanwhile?
 Global corruption and
global censorship?
Yes, it's time to change that, all over the world!
Our successors will curse them if the irresponsible scientists will continue that than over the last 5 decades.

Harvard - the number one (??) university 

"A healthy diet—along with regular exercise, stress control, and medications if needed—is a cornerstone of treatment for high blood pressure (hypertension). But what do you need to eat to lower your pressure, and how much? A good place to start is the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan. It's scientifically proven to combat hypertension, but it's not for everyone. "A healthy diet, such as DASH, does take discipline and commitment," says Dr. Deepak Bhatt, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and chief of cardiology, VA Boston Healthcare System. "People can certainly do it, but it can be challenging.""
"Sodium 2,300 milligrams**" 
"Based on a 2,100-calorie-per-day diet."
"**The lower-sodium version of DASH calls for a daily limit of 1,500 mg."

Approximately 20 liters of human milk contains 2300 mg of sodium, and about 14,000 calories (14000 kilocalories)! 

"One side says everyone needs to cut back on salt to reduce heart disease risk. The other side says universal salt reduction would be a needless deprivation for many people. Which is correct? There isn’t a simple answer. .... But there really isn’t a one-size-fits-all recommendation for daily sodium intake."

Isn't true what the other side says, because the other side is not thinking! And there is a simple answer and is a one-size-fits-all recommendation for daily sodium intake, the scientific elite swept it under the carpet only!
This simple answer - the optimal input - is in the human milk!

Education in USA
Oregon State University, Linus Pauling Institute

"A cell's membrane potential is maintained by ion pumps in the cell membrane, especially the sodium, potassium-ATPase pumps. These pumps use ATP (energy) to pump sodium out of the cell in exchange for potassium (diagram). Their activity has been estimated to account for 20%-40% of the resting energy expenditure in a typical adult. The large proportion of energy dedicated to maintaining sodium/potassium concentration gradients emphasizes the importance of this function in sustaining life."

But no sodium induced anaerobic glycolysis and lactic acid. And no Klahr & Bricker (1965), no Henningsen (1985), no Equivalency Law (1998), and no Osaka et al (2001) in the references:

Very interesting new article:

Phillipa Caudwell, Graham Finlayson, Catherine Gibbons, Mark Hopkins, Neil King, Erik Näslund, and John E Blundell
Resting metabolic rate is associated with hunger, self-determined meal size, and daily energy intake and may represent a marker for appetite
Am J Clin Nutr January 2013 vol. 97 no. 1 7-14

Background: There are strong logical reasons why energy expended in metabolism should influence the energy acquired in food-intake behavior. However, the relation has never been established, and it is not known why certain people experience hunger in the presence of large amounts of body energy. 

Objective: We investigated the effect of the resting metabolic rate (RMR) on objective measures of whole-day food intake and hunger. 

Design: We carried out a 12-wk intervention that involved 41 overweight and obese men and women [mean ± SD age: 43.1 ± 7.5 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 30.7 ± 3.9] who were tested under conditions of physical activity (sedentary or active) and dietary energy density (17 or 10 kJ/g). RMR, daily energy intake, meal size, and hunger were assessed within the same day and across each condition. 

Results: We obtained evidence that RMR is correlated with meal size and daily energy intake in overweight and obese individuals. Participants with high RMRs showed increased levels of hunger across the day (P < 0.0001) and greater food intake (P < 0.00001) than did individuals with lower RMRs. These effects were independent of sex and food energy density. The change in RMR was also related to energy intake (P < 0.0001). 

Conclusions: We propose that RMR (largely determined by fat-free mass) may be a marker of energy intake and could represent a physiologic signal for hunger. These results may have implications for additional research possibilities in appetite, energy homeostasis, and obesity. This trial was registered under international ..

Education in Hungary

No floor gas (anaerobic) sodium-potassium pump and no lactic acid. Very bad education!

Interesting work!

Pete C. Trimmer, James A.R. Marshall, Lutz Fromhage, John M. McNamara, Alasdair I. Houston
Understanding the placebo effect from an evolutionary perspective
Evolution & Human Behavior Volume 34, Issue 1 , Pages 8-15, January 2013.
(Received 13 September 2011; accepted 24 July 2012. published online 30 August 2012.)

From the New Scientist:
"The results show a clear evolutionary benefit to switching the immune system on and off depending on environmental conditions."

And, what does our self-adjusting system do if the "environmental condition" is the HIGH SODIUM INTAKE during in our whole life?
Energetics "Bokros package" = restrictions!

Prof Rob Moodie MBBS a , David Stuckler PhD b, Carlos Monteiro PhD c, Nick Sheron d, Bruce Neal PhD e, Thaksaphon Thamarangsi PhD f, Paul Lincoln BSc g, Sally Casswell PhD h, on behalf of The Lancet NCD Action Group
Profits and pandemics: prevention of harmful effects of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries
The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 12 February 2013 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)62089-3

"The 2011 UN high-level meeting on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) called for multisectoral action including with the private sector and industry. However, through the sale and promotion of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink (unhealthy commodities), transnational corporations are major drivers of global epidemics of NCDs. What role then should these industries have in NCD prevention and control? We emphasise the rise in sales of these unhealthy commodities in low-income and middle-income countries, and consider the common strategies that the transnational corporations use to undermine NCD prevention and control. We assess the effectiveness of self-regulation, public—private partnerships, and public regulation models of interaction with these industries and conclude that unhealthy commodity industries should have no role in the formation of national or international NCD policy. Despite the common reliance on industry self-regulation and public—private partnerships, there is no evidence of their effectiveness or safety. Public regulation and market intervention are the only evidence-based mechanisms to prevent harm caused by the unhealthy commodity industries."

I think strongly - there are very, very much "non-communicable knowledges" (secret NCKs) in the field of the modern health sciences, for example (or mainly) in the salt science.

Some examples to the global censorship:
This comment of mine lived for 3 days on PLOS Medicine:
The answer to my question (16 Jul 2013) - was this:
"Thank you for your interest in PLOS Medicine, particularly regarding the article “Diet and Physical Activity for the Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Policy Review”. We removed your comment because it wasn’t directly pertinent to the article on which it was posted. We are removing the reposted comment as well. Please do not post the comment again."
My answer (16 Jul 2013) was:
"Dear Margaret! " ... because it wasn´t directly pertinent to the article on which it was posted." I doubt this strongly. I have one question: which is most important (for Plos Medicine), the health of the humanity and the freedom of knowledge, or something else?"
This comment of mine lived for 8 days on PLOS Medicine: or
The answer to my question (23 Aug 2013) - was this:
"Dear Dr Sandor, Thank you for your email and I apologize that I did not contact you yet; I was planning to this week. PLOS has the discretion to remove posts that are not coherent and not immediately relevant to the article. That was the case for yours. I hope you understand. Thank you for your interest in PLOS Medicine publications. Best wishes, Margaret Winker"
My answer (23 Aug 2013) was:
"Dear Margaret, The scientific elite (including editors of scientific journals, but not the politicians) responsible for dead of millions annually in the last 5 decades, because the progress of the health science has been stopped (in this field: sodium, Na/K pump, entropy etc) globally. I will never understand and accept the censorship and the misleading of the humanity. Sincerely: Z. Sandor"
My comment to an article in European Heart Journal:
Melanie Nichols, Nick Townsend, Peter Scarborough and Mike Rayner: Trends in age-specific coronary heart disease mortality in the European Union over three decades: 1980-2009
Eur Heart J (2013) doi:10.1093/eurheartj/eht159 First published online: June 25, 2013

"Excess sodium intake enhances the Entropy, this is the main risk factor of CHD, CVD, etc.

The law of entropy is the fiercest enemy of life and is our fiercest enemy too. The sodium-chloride isn't food for humans, but is the perfect food of entropy. The spontaneous diffusion of sodium ions into the cells and the diffusion of potassium ions out of the cells, enhances the entropy. And every mmol excess sodium and the wrong sodium/potassium ratio (and other wrong ratios) increases more the entropy in our every cells. The task of the continuously working Na-K pump to keep constant the intracellular concentration of Na and K ions. These cellular pumps continuously use energy of ATP molecules. Some consequences of high sodium intake; the specialists talk about these rarely or never: Higher energy requirements (energy expenditure) for Na-K pump and kidney. All the rest of our vital processes (functional processes of the cells) receive less energy, because the metabolic rate (speed and capacity of enzyme reactions, oxygen supply, etc.) is limited. And the excess sodium intake do not increase the oxidative pathway. But, a critical surplus switches the anaerobic glycolysis on, in our every cells. This can be named: Sodium-Induced Cellular Anaerobic Glycolysis (SICAG). We produce cytotoxic lactic acid in our cells. Consequently, all of our vital processes and organs work worse (our heart, brain, regulating systems, immune system, etc.) and our cells are dying. We haven't enough energy, and we haven't enough time for the regeneration, because we enhances the entropy (by high salt intakes) in our every cells, day by day, again and again. We burn the candle on both of his ends (aerobic and anaerobic). The average lifetime of our cells shortens. Soon (faster) the telomeres run out. Our aging accelerates. We get sick often and we will die soon. Logical consequence; the unnecessary sodium increases the incidence of all illnesses without any exception, including even the genetic disorders, cancer, NCD's and infectious diseases. Some people will be obese others not, some become diabetes others not, some have high BP others not (or later), etc. We are not totally alike, but the entropy law finds our weak point, and ravages mainly there, but increases the disorder in every cells in our body, and other risk factors affect the individual consequences. The optimal ratios (Na/K ratio, the ratio between sum of alkaline metals and sum of polyvalent metals, etc.) are in the human milk. From every viewpoint, the human milk is an evolutionary perfect food, including the minimal energy expenditure of the Na-K pump and kidney of the babies (= possible minimum entropy-transfer into the babies = healthy growing with maximal economy). Thus, the human milk is the perfect guide to calculate the optimal adult intakes. But the scientists do not deal with these facts. The sodium recommendation is wrong, the education is wrong, the strategy against the NCD's is wrong. Unfortunate, that these exist only in traces, in the scientific literature. And in some articles, even the traces are concealed. I collected the most important evidences (the traces and lack of the traces) of the above ones.
These references are here: "

was not published, and this was written as cause:
"After evaluating the paper within the Editorial Office, the Editorial Board has deemed that your e-letter does not refer to the manuscript in question enough."

 Shocking data and facts and things:

Food firms accused of understating salt levels (24. aug. 2007.)

Consumers are being misled about the salt content of some ready meals and other processed foods, according to a survey published yesterday.
The report accuses manufacturers of deliberately understating portion sizes on food labels, in an apparent effort to make the amount of salt in their products seem as low as possible. In one case a packet of chicken nuggets gave the salt content for a portion weighing 15g, the equivalent of just one nugget. Servings of baked beans varied across brands from half to one third of a 420g can.

Unclear labelling risks misleading consumers about the amount of salt in their diet, according to the Local Authorities Coordinators of Regulatory Services (Lacors), which coordinated the study.

"There is concern that customers are being hoodwinked and misled by some manufacturers who are deliberately quoting unreasonably small portion sizes on their packaging to mask the true salt content of their products," said Geoffrey Theobald, chairman of Lacors.

Environmental health officers at 60 local councils across the UK collected 831 samples of processed foods from supermarkets and other stores.

Tests revealed that the salt content of the foods had fallen by 10.9% since May 2005, though fewer than half the foods met the Food Standards Agency's salt reduction targets for 2010.

The Food Standards Agency has introduced a "traffic light" system of food labelling that lists ingredients as red, amber or green, to indicate whether levels are unhealthy or not. While several retailers have adopted the scheme, others, including Tesco and large manufacturers such as Nestlé and Kelloggs, have championed an alternative system expressing ingredients as a percentage of a guideline daily amount.

Targets set by the FSA aim to see daily recommended levels of salt intake fall from today's level of around 9g to 6g by 2010. According to the pressure group Consensus Action on Salt and Health, a 3g drop in salt intake would lead to a 22% reduction in strokes and a 16% fall in coronary heart disease, preventing 35,000 deaths in Britain every year.

Amelia Lake at Newcastle University's Human Nutrition Research Centre, said: "Manufacturers and people who sell food have a responsibility to consumers, at the very least to be clear about the contents of their products."
Nálunk a fenti hír ilyen rövidre sikeredett:
"Egy friss felmérés szerint a cégek egy része kevesebb sótartalmat tüntet fel a csomagoláson, mint amennyi valójában benne van. Nagy-Britanniában 831 terméket vizsgáltak meg. A rossz adatokkal megtévesztik a vásárlókat. Túl sok só fogyasztása növeli a szívroham kockázatát."

 Túl sok só fogyasztása mindenféle betegség kockázatát növeli!
The consumption of too much salt heightens the risk of all illnesses!

Food firms know it, why the salt (sodium) is packed into foods! And the WHO and FDA and FSA and ...?

10th ed. of RDA (1989.) for adults: 500 mg/day sodium (6 g salt = 2340 mg sodium = compromise).
( )

Study warning on population fatness (Jun 18. 2012.)

"The overweight population is threatening future food security, scientists have warned.

Increasing population fatness could have the same implications for world food energy demands as an extra one billion people, researchers claimed after examining the average weight of adults across the globe.
Scientists from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) said that tackling population weight is crucial for food security and ecological sustainability.
The United Nations (UN) predicts that by 2050 there could be a further 2.3 billion people on the planet and that the ecological implications of the rising population numbers will be exacerbated by increases in average body mass, researchers said.
The world's adult population weighs 287 million tonnes, 15 million of which is due to being overweight and 3.5 million is due to obesity, according to the study, which is to be published in BMC Public Health.
The data, collected from the UN and the World Health Organisation, shows that while the average global weight per person is 62kg in 2005, Britons weighed 75kg. In the US, the average adult weighed 81kg.
Across Europe, the average weight was 70.8kg compared to just 57.7kg in Asia.
More than half of people living in Europe are overweight (55.6%) compared to only 24.2% of Asian people. Almost three-quarters of people living in north America were overweight.
Researchers predict that if all people had the same average body mass index (BMI) as Americans, the total human biomass would increase by 58 million tonnes.
The authors of the study said that the energy requirement of humans depends not only on numbers but average mass."

18.5 million tonnes fat - mainly because of the much sodium in our foods!

University of Maryland Medical Center

Diet - sodium (salt)
Side Effects:

"Too much sodium may lead to high blood pressure in those who are sensitive to sodium. If you have high blood pressure, your doctor will probably recommend that you reduce your sodium (salt) intake.
Sodium may lead to a serious build-up of fluid in people with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, or kidney disease. Such people should be on a strict sodium-restricted diet, as prescribed by their doctor."

Do the doctors know only this much? Already forgot the energy expenditure of the sodium-potassium pump? Or this was not taught to them?


"At an individual level, a combination of excessive food energy intake and a lack of physical activity is thought to explain most cases of obesity.[65] A limited number of cases are due primarily to genetics, medical reasons, or psychiatric illness.[66] In contrast, increasing rates of obesity at a societal level are felt to be due to an easily accessible and palatable diet,[67] increased reliance on cars, and mechanized manufacturing.[68][69]

A 2006 review identified ten other possible contributors to the recent increase of obesity: (1) insufficient sleep, (2) endocrine disruptors (environmental pollutants that interfere with lipid metabolism), (3) decreased variability in ambient temperature, (4) decreased rates of smoking, because smoking suppresses appetite, (5) increased use of medications that can cause weight gain (e.g., atypical antipsychotics), (6) proportional increases in ethnic and age groups that tend to be heavier, (7) pregnancy at a later age (which may cause susceptibility to obesity in children), (8) epigenetic risk factors passed on generationally, (9) natural selection for higher BMI, and (10) assortative mating leading to increased concentration of obesity risk factors (this would increase the number of obese people by increasing population variance in weight).[70] While there is substantial evidence supporting the influence of these mechanisms on the increased prevalence of obesity, the evidence is still inconclusive, and the authors state that these are probably less influential than the ones discussed in the previous paragraph."

Current models (or most of present models) for obesity are not correct!
And the recommendations and strategies against the obesity are not good likewise!

A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. Obesity

Nothing about Na/K pump, and salt.

(Hungarian female portal - date of article: 27. July 2010)

The title in english: The 3 most dangerous substance causing serious obesity.
Saturated fat, Salt, Sugar!

I give up - I do not look for the energy expenditure of the (floor gas) sodium-potassium pump longer :-( !!
But no Na/K pump and entropy ..... ! 2009 !

The Secret to Skinny. Tammy Lakatos Shames, RD, Lyssie Lakatos, RD
 How Salt Makes You Fat, and the 4-Week Plan to Drop a Size and Get Healthier with Simple Low-Sodium Swaps

"You eat right. You exercise. But still your scale won't budge. Despite your good intentions and all the stomach crunches you can stand, you could be unknowingly be sabotaging your efforts every day by eating one ingredient that is guaranteed to plug you up, bloat you out, and pack on the pounds. What is this dreaded diet saboteur? Salt."

"Sodium, along with other minerals such as calcium, magnesium, chloride, and potassium, is an electrolyte that helps keep your metabolism running, ensures proper flow of nutrients and waste into and out of your body, and maintains the acid-base (pH) balance in your blood. If you get too much sodium, you create electrolyte imbalances that throw your body off-kilter. This means your metabolism can't function at its peak, and you can't burn as much fat as you should."
 "Have  you ever found it hard to stop eating after a handful of salty chips or salted nuts? Your willpower wasn't an issue. The fact is salty foods increase your thirst and hunger, making it more likely that you'll consume calories you don't need. And, as we mentioned in the Introduction, recent research shows that a high-salt diet causes fat cells to become denser, which is not going to help you win the battle of the bulge."
"According to the Institute of Medicine, the adequate intake of sodium for people 19 to 50 years old is 1,500 milligrams (3.8 grams of salt) per day, the amount it takes to replace the average amount lost in a day from sweat, tears, and other bodily processes. The American Heart Association, the USDA, and the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans all recommend consuming less than 2,300 milligrams of sodium per day (about 5 grams of salt), which is equivalent to about 1 teaspoon of salt. So the average American actually consumes twice the recommended amount! It may not sound like a big difference, but it's enough to influence your health. And it's a far cry from the 600 to 750 milligrams of sodium that our ancestors took in. The human body is not biologically designed to handle as much salt as we now consume, which is why excess salt is such a health concern."

Again the compromise - the 3.8 g and 5 g of salt = bad recommendation.

I wrote here a comment, but waits yet. (September 10, 2012)

Responses to Research Challenging Beliefs About Body Weight Storified

Sándor Z. says:
Your comment is awaiting moderation.
September 5, 2012 at 3:01 pm

My opinion is not a belief!
Is fact: high sodium intake = higher energy expenditure of (floor gas)
sodium-potassium pump (and kidney).
Is fact: our burning capacity is limited (by speed and capacity of enzyme
reactions, oxygen supply, etc.)
Consequently, is fact that all of our vital processes obtain less energy.
Consequently, is fact that all of our vital processes and tissues work worse
(including our heart, brain, immune system, etc.).
Is fact: the salt (the high sodium intake) is a strong appetizer.
And distressing facts: overeat-overweight, hypertension, stroke,
diabetes II,…. To the solution there are necessary informations
in the breast milk.

Created: 28-aug.-2012.  Last modification: 22-júl.-2014
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