Some forgotten (ignored) articles
Saulo Klahr and Neal S. Bricker
Energetics of Anaerobic Sodium Transport by the Fresh Water Turtle Bladder
J Gen Physiol. 1965 March 1; 48(4): 571–580. PMCID: PMC2195440
Full text: http://europepmc.org/articles/PMC2195440/pdf/571.pdf
"Certain of the metabolic events associated with anaerobic sodium transport by
the isolated bladder of the fresh water turtle have been investigated. The data suggest that energy for this transport arises from glycolysis and that endogenous
glycogen was the major and perhaps the sole source of substrate. The rate of
anaerobic glycolysis, as determined by lactate formation, correlates well with the rate as determined by glycogen utilization. Using lactate formation as the
index of anaerobic glycolysis, a linear relationship was observed between glycolysis
and net anaerobic sodium transport. In the absence of sodium transport, glycolysis
decreased by approximately 45 per cent. Tissue ATP concentrations were maintained
at about the same level under anaerobic as under aerobic conditions. Finally if it
is assumed that in the conversion of glycogen to lactate anaerobically, 3 moles of ATP are generated per mole of glucose residue, an average of over 15 equivalents
of sodium were transported for every mole of ATP generated."
SAULO KLAHR, JAQUES BOURGOIGNIE & NEAL S. BRICKER
Coupling of anaerobic metabolism to anaerobic sodium transport: a high energy intermediate.
Nature 1968, 218(5143):769-770
THE RATE OF ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS OF THE HEART IN RELATION TO THE LACTIC ACID
CONCENTRATION, ATP CONTENT AND TEMPERATURE.
Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Kreislaufforschung 1964;30:211-5
(But no abstract supplied)
And in 2000
INVITED REVIEW - Mechanisms of sodium pump regulation
Alex G. Therien and Rhoda Blostein
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol September 1, 2000 vol. 279 no. 3 C541-C566
and in 2008
Shaun F. Morrison, Kazuhiro Nakamura and Christopher J. Madden
Central control of thermogenesis in mammals
July 1, 2008 Experimental Physiology, 93, 773-797.
~ 180 references!
35 and 43 years after Klahr & Bricker and 3 years after
Christopher B. Scott (2005, see later) and nothing about entropy, (floor gas) sodium-potassium pump, anaerobic glycolysis
and lactic acid.
How does the knowledge (which was found already
Maiken Nedergaard, Steven A. Goldman, Smita Desai, and William A. Pulsinelli
Acid-induced death in neurons and glia
The Journal of Neuroscience, August 1991, 11(8): 2489-2497
http://facweb.northseattle.edu/csheridan/Biology160_Win11/pdfs/Flow of Energy_04_Acid-Induced Cell Death.pdf
From the article:
“Lactic acidosis has been proposed to be one factor promoting cell death following cerebral ischemia. We have previously demonstrated
that cultured neurons and glia are killed by relatively brief (10 min) exposure to acidic solutions of pH
< 5 (Goldman et al., 1989).”
"Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia induces lactic acid formation trough the accentuation of anaerobic
glycolysis. The magnitude of this
lactic acid accumulation depends largely upon the preischemic glucose and glycogen concentrations of the affected tissue (Smith
et al., 1986). Local accumulation of lactic acid to cytotoxic levels may play a causal role in the genesis of brain infarction following
cerebral ischemia (Meyer and Yamaguchi, 1977; Siemkowitz and Hansen, 1978; Pulsinelli et al., 1982; Nedergaard, 1987).
Several authors have addressed directly the issue of acid-induced
Richard Lynna, John Harvey: The decline of the world's IQ
Intelligence Volume 36, Issue 2, March–April 2008, Pages 112–120
Michael A. Woodleya, Jan te Nijenhuisc, Raegan Murphyd:
Were the Victorians cleverer than us? The decline in general intelligence
estimated from a meta-analysis of the slowing of simple reaction time
Intelligence, Available online 7 May 2013
The Sodium Induced Cellular Anaerobic Glycolysis produces much lactic
acid. The salted humanity - suffering from Sodium-Induced Disorder Syndrome
(SIDS) - degenerates and will be idiotic. Together with the IQ, the average moral level decreases,
and (possibly) all this will accelerate. And this disintegrates the society. The
salted road drives the humanity into anarchy and chaos.
Peskind ER, Jensen CF, Pascualy M, Tsuang D, Cowley D, Martin DC, Wilkinson CW, Raskind MA.:
Sodium lactate and hypertonic sodium chloride induce equivalent panic incidence, panic symptoms, and
hypernatremia in panic disorder.
Biol Psychiatry. 1998 Nov 15; 44(10):1007-16.
Despite that nothing about the Na-K pump in the article (why??), this is a very interesting work. Who is ill and who is healthy?
What is normal? Why we eat the salt (or, why we like it)? Possible, this is a consequence of our devolution and is a consequence (a symptom) of Sodium-Induced Disorder Syndrome?
Why do the urban mice (and free-living animals) not eat salt?
The sodium-induced panic is a disorder really?
Thermogenesis induced by osmotic stimulation of the intestines in the rat
4 December 2000)
Kobayashi, and Shuji
J Physiol. 2001
April 1; 532(Pt
1): 261–269. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.0261g.x
(Received 21 August 2000; accepted after
From the article:
"Intestinal infusion of glucose solutions
increased the metabolic rate, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and Tc
dose dependently (). The metabolic rate rose gradually during the
infusion of 20 % glucose from a baseline level of 186 ± 7 J kg−0.75
min−1 to a peak of 217 ± 6 J kg−0.75 min−1
at 65 min and slowly returned to the baseline level within 3 h (). The energy expenditure induced by 20 %
glucose was 2.79 ± 0.45 kJ kg−0.75 *
for 3 h (). The RER increased from 0.82 ± 0.01 to 0.92 ± 0.01 at 115 min (), suggesting** the oxidation of
carbohydrate during the thermogenic response to the glucose infusion. The
increase in RER lasted more than 3 h. As a consequence of the thermogenesis, Tc
increased from 36.73 ± 0.12 °C to a peak of 37.16 ± 0.07 °C at 95 min (). Tail skin temperature increased less than 0.5 °C after
the glucose infusion. Infusion of 10 % glucose also increased the metabolic rate
to a peak of 206 ± 7 J kg−0.75 min−1 at 60
min, and the effect lasted more than 2 h. In spite of the long-lasting increase
in metabolic rate, the increase in RER terminated within 80 min. Tc
reached a peak of 36.87 ± 0.11 °C at 90 min. Infusion of 5 % glucose induced
small but significant increases in metabolic rate and RER, but it did not
increase Tc significantly. The energy
expended was 1.86 ± 0.39 kJ kg−0.75 after
10 % glucose* and 0.32 ± 0.24 kJ kg−0.75 after 5 %
glucose (). However, energy expenditure as a percentage of energy intake was
not statistically different among the rats administered different concentrations
of glucose solution (20 % glucose, 11.2 ± 1.8 %; 10 % glucose, 14.9 ± 3.1 %; 5
% glucose, 5.2 ± 4.0 %)."
"Intestinal infusion of hypertonic NaCl
solutions also increased the metabolic rate dose dependently (). The metabolic rate rose during the 10 min infusion
period of 3.6 % NaCl, stayed at a plateau level of ≈205 J kg−0.75
min−1 between 35 and 120 min and then slowly declined but was
still significantly higher than the baseline level at 3 h. The energy
expenditure induced by 3.6 % NaCl was 3.49 ± 0.33 kJ kg−0.75,
which was not significantly different from that induced by the infusion of 20 %
glucose*. Administration of 1.8 % NaCl also increased the metabolic rate, to a
plateau level of ≈190 J kg−0.75 min−1
between 45 and 120 min. Energy expenditure induced by 1.8 % NaCl was 2.91 ±
0.59 kJ kg−0.75, which was not significantly different from
that induced by the infusion of 10 % glucose*. Administration of 0.9 % NaCl did
not increase the metabolic rate. The RER did not change after infusion of any of
the NaCl solutions*** (). Tc increased from 36.74 ± 0.06 °C
to a peak of 37.20 ± 0.11 °C at 85 min after the infusion of 3.6 % NaCl and to
a peak of 36.89 ± 0.11 °C at 125 min after the infusion of 1.8 % NaCl (). Tc did not increase after the
infusion of 0.9 % NaCl."
Interesting statements, because: * 3.49 >> 2.79
and 2.91 >> 1.86 and 2.91 > 2.79; and: ** only suggesting?
***This is a very old cellular anaerobic
mechanism - before free oxygen molecules on earth.
I give a name to this:
Sodium Induced Cellular Anaerobic Glycolysis = SICAG
Or: Sodium Induced Cellular Anaerobic Thermogenesis =
Would be valuable a similar experiment with seals or dolphins. The surplus
sodium induces the anaerobic or enhances the aerobic pathway?
Others wrote this down presumably already, but this is kept in secret, or ...?
We produce lactic acid even in our brain.
The scientific elite makes fool of the whole humanity.
From the effects of 0,9 and 1,8 % NaCl infusion,
I can suppose, anaerobic glycolysis begin in an average 70 kg man from ~ 6-7 g dose of salt. I would dare to bet that this was examined in
similar (but oral) human experiments
already, but the results are kept secret.
The global censorship works efficiently!
And from the above results roughly calculable:
The salted humanity squanders the energy of at least 100 million tons
of food annually, to get rid of the sodium swallowed unnecessarily!
The oxidative pathway produces from 1 molecule
glucose 36-38 pieces of ATP.
But the anaerobic glycolysis produces from 1 molecule glucose 2 pieces of ATP
only, and 2 pieces lactic acid molecule!
The salt-induced anaerobic energy (ATP) production consumed more glucose than the total
resting metabolism of the rats, on the oxidative pathway.
This article is "only" 12 years
old, and no anaerobic energy expenditure of (turbo) Na/K pump, no lactic acid and no Entropy
LD50 of NaCl is 3 g/kg body weight. OGTT - ONaTT, and ECG (EKG), EEG, etc.?
Akiko Kobayashi, Toshimasa
Inoue, and Shuichi
Thermogenesis induced by intravenous infusion of hypertonic solutions in the rat
J Physiol. 2001 September 1; 535(Pt 2): 601–610. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.00601.x
(Received 4 December 2000; accepted after revision 9 May 2001)
(The two revisions may have been interesting stories.)
Links between dietary salt intake, renal salt
handling, blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases.
Meneton P, Jeunemaitre X, de Wardener HE, MacGregor GA.
Physiol Rev. 2005 Apr; 85(2):679-715.
"Epidemiological, migration, intervention, and genetic studies in humans and animals provide very strong evidence of a causal link
between high salt intake and high blood pressure. The mechanisms by which dietary salt increases arterial pressure are not fully
understood, but they seem related to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt. From an evolutionary viewpoint, the human species is adapted to ingest and excrete <
1 g of salt
per day, at least 10 times less than the average values currently observed in industrialized and urbanized countries. Independent of
the rise in blood pressure, dietary salt also increases cardiac left ventricular mass, arterial thickness and stiffness, the
incidence of strokes, and the severity of cardiac failure. Thus chronic exposure to a high-salt diet appears to be a major factor
involved in the frequent occurrence of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in human
He FJ, MacGregor GA
A comprehensive review on salt and health and current experience of worldwide salt reduction
J Hum Hypertens. 2009 Jun;23(6):363-84. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2008.144. Epub 2008 Dec 25.
And no sodium induced anaerobic glycolysis, no lactic acid and no
(floor gas) sodium-potassium pump.
Codex Alimentarius Hungaricus 1-3/81-1 Certain bread and bakery products
Content regulation in most popular and cheapest white bread and in half-brown bread, onto dry
Now, at least 15 g/kg of salt, and the permissible upper level is 28 g/kg of
From 1 January 2015: at least 13 g/kg, and the upper level 25 g/kg,
and from 1 January 2018: at least 13 g/kg, and the upper level 23,5 g/kg.
This hungarian regulation is an irresponsible pact with the
enemy, and ...!
15 g salt = 10 % of oral LD50 dose for 50 kg body weight,
28 g salt = 18.67 % of them.
Oral LD50 dose of (potassium cyanide) KCN = 5 mg/kg body weight.
For 50 kg body weight oral LD50 = 250 mg KCN.
What it would be called, if 25 - 46.67 mg/kg (10 - 18.67 % of LD50) of potassium
cyanide would be mixed into the bread?
Commentary: Possible role of salt intake in the development of essential hypertension
Int. J. Epidemiol. (October 2005) 34 (5): 972-974. doi:
From the end of the article: "... However, the randomized studies have shown an effect of sodium reduction not only
on hypertension, but also of about 1 mm Hg in healthy, normotensive persons. 17,18
The new controversy is whether this effect, if applied to the whole population, would
have a beneficial effect on the morbidity and mortality of the population and whether
this unproven assumption should lead to a general recommendation of sodium reduction
in the population.
It is tempting to end this commentary with another provocative citation from Chapman
and Gibbons:1 ‘Many (articles) possess historical interest only. Others, while defective
in some respects, contain suggestions that have led to later and more valuable
work. Still others have had influence out of all proportion to their intrinsic work and are
responsible for vast amounts of wasted research endeavour on the part of later
investigators’. In that connection, considering that the salt controversy now is dealing
with an effect size of about 1 mm Hg, one may ask, has it been worth 100 years of
Yes, the scientific elite is responsible for vast amounts of wasted research
endeavour, but this viewpoint is too narrow.
Salt intakes around the world: implications for public health.
Brown IJ, Tzoulaki I, Candeias V, Elliott P.
Int J Epidemiol. 2009 Jun;38(3):791-813. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyp139.
Epub 2009 Apr 7.
From the abstract:
“BACKGROUND: High levels of dietary sodium (consumed as common salt, sodium
chloride) are associated with raised blood pressure and adverse cardiovascular
health. Despite this, public health efforts to reduce sodium consumption remain
limited to a few countries. Comprehensive, contemporaneous sodium intake data
from around the world are needed to inform national/international public health
initiatives to reduce sodium consumption.
RESULTS: Sodium intakes around the world are well in excess
of physiological need (i.e. 10-20 mmol/day). Most adult
populations have mean sodium intakes > 100 mmol/day, and for many (particularly
the Asian countries) mean intakes are > 200 mmol/day. Possible
exceptions include estimates from Cameroon, Ghana, Samoa, Spain, Taiwan,
Tanzania, Uganda and Venezuela, though methodologies were sub-optimal and
samples were not nationally representative. Sodium intakes were commonly >
100 mmol/day in children over 5 years old, and increased with age. In
European and Northern American countries, sodium intake is dominated by sodium
added in manufactured foods (approximately 75% of intake). Cereals and baked
goods were the single largest contributor to dietary sodium intake in UK and US
adults. In Japan and China, salt added at home (in cooking and at the table) and
soy sauce were the largest sources.
CONCLUSIONS: Unfavourably high sodium intakes remain prevalent around the
world. Sources of dietary sodium vary largely worldwide. If policies for salt
reduction at the population level are to be effective, policy development and
implementation needs to target the main source of dietary sodium in the various
And from the article:
"Research has shown that lower sodium concentration in foods can be readily
achieved; one-quarter reduction in the sodium content of sliced white bread can be delivered largely unnoticed in the
population . In 2000, ~ 7.1 million deaths worldwide were attributed to non-optimal BP [112,113].
Lowering the salt intake of individuals around the world is expected to shift the
population distribution of BP towards more optimal levels, thus preventing thousands
of deaths from CVD and stroke, and reducing the burden on overstretched health
services. ... Sodium reduction is
the easiest to implement, cost-effective and efficient ways to reduce the global burden of CVD and thus
should not be overlooked ."
Oh, finally, this is the best
recommendation, but not the perfect. 10-20 mmol/day = 230-460 mg sodium/day. And
are 156 references in the article but nothing about the (floor gas) sodium-potassium pump and
anaerobic glycolysis and lactic acid and nothing about the metal content (sodium and others) of the
The unnecessarily swallowed sodium increases the incidence of all illnesses
without any exception! How many people died in the last 5 decades?
The salt (sodium) caused and causes the largest holocaust in human history.
The scientific elite does astonishing irresponsibility!
Wake up! If nobody knows the enemy (because it is kept secret) nobody can battle
Letter to the Editor
Kidney International (2007) 71, 85–86. doi:10.1038/sj.ki.5001951
Editorial on the politics of salt and blood pressure
M F Jacobson
"To the Editor: The editorial on the politics of salt and blood pressure was exceptionally prescient in recognizing the influence of a trade lobby, the Salt Institute, on policies (Kidney Int 2006; 69: 1707–1708).
In one regard, though, the editorial conveyed a common misconception: that current levels of salt are necessary for preservative functions.
We have analyzed the sodium contents of competing brands within the same category of foods.1 In most categories we found wide variations. For instance, Johnsonville Original breakfast links (sausages) contain twice as much sodium as Jimmy Dean Pork Original links (1110 mg vs 570 mg). Banquet macaroni and cheese frozen dinner has twice as much sodium as Stouffer's Lean Cuisine macaroni and cheese dinner (440 mg vs 230 mg). Those comparisons prove that many companies could greatly reduce sodium levels without endangering health or consumer acceptance.
Although the Salt Institute embraces the Data Quality Act, it fears the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. That law requires that substances in food be restricted to safe levels. However, salt is considered by the US Food and Drug Administration to be 'generally recognized as safe', which means that levels cannot be restricted.2 The Center for Science in the Public Interest in
1978 petitioned the Food and Drug Administration to revoke the generally recognized as safe status and limit salt, especially in the biggest sources of sodium. (The US Department of Agriculture should do the same for meat and poultry products.) After the Food and Drug Administration failed to take action, Center for Science in the Public Interest sued the Food and Drug Administration (unsuccessfully) in 1982 and 2005, and later in 2005 again petitioned the agency to protect the public health.
Halving sodium levels in packaged and restaurant foods could save 150 000 lives per year.3 It is unfortunate that government health authorities have not shown the will to
1. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Salt Assault 2005. http://cspinet.org/salt/updated_saltreport.pdf
2. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Salt: The Forgotten Killer 2005. http://cspinet.org/salt/saltreport.pdf
3. Havas S, Roccella EJ, Lenfant C. Reducing the public health burden from elevated blood pressure levels in the United States by lowering intake of dietary sodium. Am J Pub Health 2004; 94: 19–22.
The government health authorities do astonishing irresponsibility!
And this is a global problem.
And the CSPI is weak, because they do not use the already existing (forgotten, ignored, censored) knowledges.
And this is also an astonishing irresponsibility (and/or astonishing ignorance).
Role of diabetes, hypertension, and cigarette smoking on atherosclerosis
J Cardiovasc Dis Res. 2010
From the article:
" ... However, they consume about 4 g of NaCl per
day, which is too high. .... "
And: "... To determine
the mechanism of thermogenesis, Osaka et al.[7-9]
infused hypertonic solution of glucose, NaCl, fructose, and amino acids in the
intestine of urethane-anesthetized rats. A higher core body temperature was
observed with increasing amounts of the above-mentioned nutrients. Furthermore,
an intravenous injection (IV) of these nutrients also caused thermogenesis
accompanied by an increase in plasma osmolality. However, thermogenesis caused
by IV was lesser than that caused by the intestinal infusion of NaCl and the
solutions of the other above-mentioned nutrients, suggesting an involvement of
intestinal osmoreceptors. This further suggests that it is unlikely that IV and
intestinal osmotic stimulation induces identical mechanisms of thermogenesis.
However, it does show that an increase in the plasma osmolality, within the
physiological range, elicits thermogenesis. The mechanism of
thermogenesis is not clear. However, it may involve intestinal
osmoreceptors. The authors also found that food intake stimulated the metabolic
rate of the whole body and increased the core body temperature. The core body
temperature is measured by inserting a thermister in the anus. The skin or
cutaneous body temperature is measured by a thermister taped to the lateral
surface of a rat's tail. The mechanism of core and skin temperatures are
It is this thermogenesis that is responsible for the generation
of atherosclerotic plaque. ..."
From the end of the article:
"Patients are advised to stay away from fatty foods, which obviously does
not help because fatty meal is not the cause for atherosclerosis. Therefore, the researchers should first examine the cause of the disease before trying
to cure it; otherwise, we will be treating symptoms rather than curing the disease itself. ...
Finally, this field
requires some broad theories and hypotheses explaining the involvement of
foods, diabetes, hypertension, cigarette smoking, and others in the formation
of atherosclerotic plaque. We have a mission but are lacking the vision. That
is why we have not made any progress even though we have worked on it for more
than 50 years."
9 years and 45 years after Klahr & Bricker, and not clear? Floor gas Na/K pump and kidney use
more energy (ATP) caused by NaCl! Must "burn" ANAEROBIC from the glycogen reserve for the excess ADP
--> ATP reactions! And see Henningsen 1985, our cells are dying.
Was the mechanism not clear really? Or the scientific elite did not allow it to
Theories and hypotheses are not needed, but it is necessary to
use the already existing knowledges!
And requires researches in the following directions:
1. Energy expenditure and capacity of the sodium-potassium pump (including active transport processes of chloride ions, and energy expenditure of the kidney) in relation of sodium (salt) and potassium intake (set optimal
intakes and optimal Na/K ratio)
2. Consequences of the sodium induced anaerobic glycolysis (and lactic acid) for example in the brain cells
3. Optimal intake ratio between polyvalent metals and alkali metals (considering the chemical rule of the cation exchange processes, and
considering the metal contents of the mature human milk)
4. It is necessary to clear - the much sodium (salt) is a strong appetizer, and
5. Entropy, energy and regeneration
The salt = we burn the candle on both of his
ends. The average lifetime of our cells shortens.
Soon (faster) the telomeres run out. Our aging accelerates, and we will die soon.
And it is necessary to think so, as physicist, chemical engineer, biochemist and evolution biologist.
Instead of sonorous "reducing salt intake" programs and instead
of taxes severe laws necessary.
Now, in 2014: American Heart Association: "Exactly how atherosclerosis begins or what causes it isn't
known, but some theories have been proposed. Many scientists think atherosclerosis starts because the innermost layer of the artery becomes damaged."
Would be enough to read carefully and to understand only 3 articles: Klahr & Bricker 1965, Henningsen 1985, Osaka et al. 2001.
And would be clear, that it's possible to teach this even to kindergartener.
Forgotten and/or ignored or not understood articles, works, facts, evidences and
etc. The blind watchmaker learned well the physics first, then the chemistry. And dealt with biochemistry then only. But never forgot what he learned already
Association of Dietary, Circulating, and Supplement Fatty Acids With Coronary Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Rajiv Chowdhury, MD, PhD; Samantha Warnakula, MPhil*; Setor Kunutsor, MD, MSt*; Francesca Crowe, PhD; Heather A. Ward, PhD; Laura Johnson, PhD; Oscar H. Franco, MD, PhD; Adam S. Butterworth, PhD; Nita G. Forouhi, MRCP, PhD; Simon G. Thompson, FMedSci; Kay-Tee Khaw, FMedSci; Dariush Mozaffarian, MD, DrPH; John Danesh, FRCP*; and Emanuele Di Angelantonio, MD, PhD
Ann Intern Med. 2014;160(6):398-406-406. doi:10.7326/M13-1788
From the article: “Conclusion: Current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low consumption of total saturated
Yes, it is clear and logical - because the real risk factor (the initial cause) is the
censored sodium-induced disorder (syndrome).
What Next In The Saturated Fat, Cholesterol And Statin Controversy
Medication does not reduce risk of recurrent CV events among patients with diabetes
"Aleglitazar use was associated with increased risk of kidney abnormalities, bone fractures, gastrointestinal bleeding, and hypoglycemia (low blood sugars).
"These findings do not support the use of aleglitazar in this setting with a goal of reducing cardiovascular risk," the authors conclude."
Blood Glucose Doesn't Predict Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease
“Conclusions and Relevance In a study of individuals without known CVD or diabetes, additional assessment of HbA1c values in the context of CVD risk assessment provided little incremental benefit for prediction of CVD risk.”
Fructose, glucose, sugar is sugar
Dispelled - high fructose corn syrup causal link to obesity
Combo of overweight, high sodium intake speeds cell aging in teens
"Previous research found that protective ends on chromosomes (telomeres) naturally shorten with age, but the process is accelerated by smoking, lack of physical activity and high body fat. The current study is the first to examine the impact of sodium intake on telomere length."
This is a logical consequence of Sodium-Induced Disorder (with high and ideal BMI
too, and not only in teens). Instead of research costs, it is necessary to use the existing knowledge.
Kacie M Dickinson, Peter M Clifton, and Jennifer B Keogh:
Endothelial function is impaired after a high-salt meal in healthy subjects
Am J Clin Nutr March 2011 vol. 93 no. 3. 500-505
From the article:
"Endothelial dysfunction, considered to be an initial step in the development of atherosclerosis (6), has been shown with higher salt intakes (7, 8). Dietary salt reduction has been shown to improve endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in a chronic study (9).
However, the mechanisms relating salt and endothelial dysfunction are still not
26 years after Henningsen, and "still not
The elite of the health science made experimental animals from the humanity. And
all of the humanity suffers from Sodium-Induced Disorder Syndrome (SIDS)!
The science of salt is the number one perfect example onto the blunders, mistakes and irresponsibilities of the modern health sciences.
After Sanford Miller in - Gary Taubes: The (Political) Science of Salt,
Science 14 August 1998: Vol. 281 no. 5379 pp. 898-907
Some of the: "TOUCHSTONES OF THE SALT
Midgley et al., 1996. Meta-analysis of 56 clinical trials concludes that benefit from salt reduction
is small and does not support current dietary recommendations.
Cutler et al., 1997. Meta-analysis of 32 clinical trials concludes that benefit of salt reduction
is larger and does support current dietary recommendations.
Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group, 1997 (TOHP II).
Clinical trial in 2400 subjects indicates that long-term reductions in salt intake are hard to
maintain and result in little or no reduction in blood pressure.
Appel et al., 1997 (DASH). Clinical trial of 459 people shows that dietary factors
other than sodium have a much greater effect on blood pressure.
Graudal et al., 1998. Meta-analysis of 114 clinical trials does not support a general recommendation
to reduce salt intake."
This not anymore science, but narrow-minded stupidity.
Indisputable and inevitable consequence, that the unnecessary sodium increases
the incidence of all illnesses!
The newest touchstones of the meaningless
pseudo-scientific salt debate:
The (political) science of salt revisited.
Graudal N, Jürgens G.
Comment on Effect of lower sodium intake on health: systematic review and meta-analyses.
BMJ 2013; 346 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.f2741 (Published 3
David A. McCarron, Alexandra G. Kazaks, Joel C. Geerling, Judith S. Stern and Niels A. Graudal:
Normal Range of Human Dietary Sodium Intake: A Perspective Based on 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion Worldwide
Am J Hypertens (2013) doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpt139 First published online: August 26, 2013
From the abstact: "As documented here, this range is determined by physiologic needs rather than
environmental factors. Future guidelines should be based on this biologically determined range."
Without entropy and without (aerobic and anaerobic) energy expenditure of sodium-potassium pump and without
the metal content of human milk and without of an evolutionary viewpoint - this is not science!
The "biologically determined range" is in the human milk!
Again a new portion of pseudoscientific
Niels Graudal, Gesche Jürgens, Bo Baslund and Michael H. Alderman:
Compared With Usual Sodium Intake, Low- and Excessive-Sodium Diets Are Associated With Increased Mortality: A Meta-Analysis
Am J Hypertens (2014) doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpu028
First published online: March 20, 2014
I wrote some e-mails to Niels Albert Graudal, and I have 2
Here is our correspondence: http://padre.uw.hu/ekvis/graudal.htm
The American Journal of Hypertension is a pseudo-scientific dump. Editor-in-Chief: Michael H. Alderman.
About Alderman (2007): http://www.nature.com/ki/journal/v71/n1/full/5001952a.html
"Alderman's flawed report damages public health severely worldwide. Medical journals should pay more attention to the need for impeccable quality in an alarming report, bearing in mind that the media will give it special attention and disseminate it widely."
Really, the IQ and moral level decline worldwide! Why big data & fancy statistics aren't science?
Eight (no, nine!) problems with big data
"By combining the power of modern computing with the plentiful data of the digital era, it promises to solve virtually
any problem - crime, public health, the evolution of grammar, the perils of dating - just by crunching the numbers."
The education is wrong, the researchers are not thinking, the existing knowledge is not used (it is ignored and censored), but statistical data are
collected (instead of real sciences). Would be better to learn more and to think
more, because statistical analyses cannot overwrite scientific laws and
D.L. Katz and S. Meller
Can We Say What Diet Is Best for Health?
Annual Review of Public Health
Vol. 35: 83-103 (Volume publication date March 2014)
Are 167 references in the article, but no hit for: entropy, salt, Na/K pump, aerobic, anaerobic and only one hit for sodium.
Note this one is important: "... dramatically different ratio of potassium to sodium ..." (in relation to Paleolithic eating).
However, this is a worthless article.
Christopher B Scott
Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis
Nutrition & Metabolism 2005, 2:14 doi:10.1186/1743-7075-2-14
From the article:
"The second law describes how energy is transferred from one form to
another. For example heat, as an expression of energy, always flows in one direction – from hot to cold. Other ways of stating this are that energy
flows "downhill" or, from a state of lower entropy to one of higher
entropy. Entropy represents energy that is not available to perform work so that simply
put, energy transfer is inefficient. Inefficiency also appears in the form of heat
production that is usually discarded into the environment. ...
Brisk activity of the sodium pump necessitates a rapid rate of ATP re-synthesis.
If this is true then it is important to recognize that in some cells*
lactate with presumed heat production is better correlated with sodium and potassium
pumping than is oxygen uptake ...
It seems logical to conclude that most mammalian energy expenditure does come from aerobic metabolism but the evolution of a metabolic acceleration
with concomitant heat production comes from both anaerobic and aerobic pathways.
The relative contributions of each pathway to whole-body thermogenesis are not
This already something, but not too much. (SICAG?)
Why *"... in some cells ..." only?
In every cells, this
is true (generated by high sodium intakes)! Would this be the "progress" of the health science over 40 years (1965 - 2005)?
Franco Valenza, Marta Pizzocri, Valentina Salice, Giorgio Chevallard, Tommaso Fossali, Silvia Coppola,
Sara Froio, Federico Polli, Stefano Gatti, Francesco Fortunato, Giacomo P. Comi, Luciano Gattinoni
Sodium Bicarbonate Treatment during Transient or Sustained Lactic Acidemia in Normoxic and Normotensive Rats
PLoS ONE 2012 7(9): e46035. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046035
Boyd JH, Walley KR.
Is there a role for sodium bicarbonate in treating lactic acidosis from shock?
Current Opinion in Critical Care. 2008 Aug;14(4):379-83. doi: 10.1097/MCC.0b013e3283069d5c
"PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bicarbonate therapy for severe lactic acidosis remains a controversial
RECENT FINDINGS: The most recent 2008 Surviving Sepsis guidelines strongly recommend against the use of bicarbonate in patients with pH at least 7.15, while deferring judgment in more severe acidemia. We review the mechanisms causing lactic acidosis in the critically ill and the scientific rationale behind treatment with bicarbonate.
SUMMARY: There is little rationale or evidence for the use of bicarbonate therapy for lactic acidosis due to shock. We agree with the Surviving Sepsis guidelines recommendation against the use of bicarbonate for lactic acidosis for pH at least 7.15 and we further recommend a lower target pH of 7.00 or less. If bicarbonate is used, consideration must be given to slow infusion and a plan for clearing the CO2 that is produced and measuring and correcting ionized calcium as the resultant 10% drop may decrease cardiac and vascular contractility and responsiveness to catecholamines. When continuous renal replacement therapy is used during severe acidosis, we recommend bicarbonate-based replacement fluid over citrate as citrate may increase the strong ion gap. Effective therapy of lactic acidosis due to shock is to reverse the
Bicarbonate = sodium bicarbonate = floor gas
sodium-potassium pump = anaerobic glycolysis = more lactic acid!
Not controversial. I think it is bad, wrong
Acta Medica Indonesiana 2007 Jul-Sep;39(3):145-50.
"Acute metabolic acidosis is frequently encountered in critically ill patients. Metabolic acidosis can occur as a result of either the accumulation of endogenous acids that consumes bicarbonate (high anion gap metabolic acidosis) or loss of bicarbonate from the gastrointestinal tract or the kidney (hyperchloremic or normal anion gap metabolic acidosis). The cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis includes lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, renal failure and intoxication with ethylene glycol, methanol, salicylate and less commonly with pyroglutamic acid (5-oxoproline), propylene glycole or djenkol bean (gjenkolism). The most common causes of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis are gastrointestinal bicarbonate loss, renal tubular acidosis, drugs-induced hyperkalemia, early renal failure and administration of acids. The appropriate treatment of acute metabolic acidosis, in particular organic form of acidosis such as lactic acidosis, has been very controversial.
The only effective treatment for organic acidosis is cessation of acid production via improvement of tissue oxygenation. Treatment of acute organic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate failed to reduce the morbidity and mortality despite improvement in acid-base
parameters. Further studies are required to determine the optimal treatment strategies for acute metabolic
V Vitek and R A Cowley
Blood lactate in the prognosis of various forms of shock.
Annals of Surgery 1971 February; 173(2): 308–313.
MAX HARRY WEIL, M.D., PH.D.; ABDELMONEN A. AFIFI, PH.D.
Experimental and Clinical Studies on Lactate and Pyruvate as Indicators of the Severity
of Acute Circulatory Failure (Shock)
Circulation. 1970; 41: 989-1001 doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.41.6.989
And something about the floor gas sodium-potassium pump? Why?
New, in 2013!
WHO. Guideline: Sodium intake for adults and children.
Geneva, World Health Organization (WHO), 2012.
On page 2 (10 of 56):
"WHO recommends a reduction in sodium intake to control blood pressure in children
(strong recommendation). The recommended maximum level of intake of 2 g/day sodium in adults should be adjusted
downward based on
the energy requirements of children relative to those of adults."
Why downward? Why not from mature human milk?
On page 3 (11 of 56):
"Addressing the optimal ratio of sodium to potassium was outside the scope of this guideline; however, if an individual consumes the amount of sodium
recommended in this guideline and the amount of potassium recommended in the WHO guideline on potassium intake,
the ratio of sodium to potassium would be
approximately one to one, which is considered beneficial for health (12)."
and on page 19 (27 of 56):
"These recommendations do not address the optimal sodium to potassium ratio;
however, if this guideline and the WHO guideline on potassium intake are
achieved, the molar ratio of sodium to potassium would be approximately one to
on page 3 (11 of 52):
"... however, if an individual consumes sodium at the levels recommended in the WHO guideline
on sodium intake, and potassium as recommended in the current guideline, the ratio of sodium
to potassium would be approximately one to one, which is considered beneficial for health
and on page 16 (24 of 52):
"These recommendations do not address the optimal ratio of sodium to potassium; however, if this
guideline and the WHO guideline on sodium consumption are achieved, the molar ratio of sodium to
potassium would be approximately one to one."
(12) = (8) WHO Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic disease. Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. Geneva, World Health Organization (WHO), 2003
From this report, on page 90 (100 of 160):
"Potassium Adequate dietary intake of potassium lowers blood pressure and is
protective against stroke and cardiac arrythmias. Potassium intake should be at a level which will
keep the sodium to potassium ratio close to 1.0, i.e. a
daily potassium intake level of 70-80 mmol per day. This may be achieved through adequate daily consumption of fruits and vegetables."
Why close to 1.0? Where is the exact (original) reference of this
statement? Has it any traces of strength of evidence? From where did they pick this ratio out?
saw such ratio in mature human milk!
Only in the colostrum is this molar ratio
close to one to one, but this has an evolutionary explanation. See below, from the data of
Yamawaki et al. 2005 (from more data, the average Na:K molar ratio is closer to
1:2.5 in mature human milk).
|Days of lactation
||1 - 5
||6 - 10
||11 - 20
||21 - 89
||90 - 180
||181 - 365
|K/Na molar ratio
The WHO misleads all of the humanity. This is not
science, but charlatanry. This is a typical pseudo-scientific method.
Were stupid the evolution, and the natural selection?
We are better, than the blind watchmaker?
And logical inferences: In the production of the gamete more the mistake
in the copying of DNA, and the error correcting mechanism work worse. The human genome is
The salt is the greatest blunder of the Homo Sapiens. Fatal error!
Now in Hungary, no recommendation for sodium - why?
And here: http://www.crnusa.org/about_recs.html
no recommendations for Na and K - why?
The old hungarian recommendation for adults for potassium: 3500 mg/day, and the new: 2000
mg/day, and the new WHO: at least 3510 mg/day. Controversial
Sandra L. Titus, James A. Wells & Lawrence J. Rhoades:
Repairing research integrity
Nature 453, 980-982 (19 June 2008) doi:10.1038/453980a; Published online 18 June 2008
"A survey suggests that many research misconduct incidents in the United States go unreported
to the Office of Research Integrity. Sandra L. Titus, James A. Wells and Lawrence J. Rhoades
say it's time to change that."
Klahr and Bricker 1965, Henningsen 1985, Sandor 1998, Osaka et al 2001, Mathur 2010, WHO
2003 - 2013.
Five decades, and what did the scientific elite do meanwhile?
Global corruption and
Yes, it's time to change that, all over the world!
Our successors will curse them if the irresponsible scientists will continue that
than over the last 5 decades.
Harvard - the number one (??) university
"A healthy diet—along with regular exercise, stress control, and medications if needed—is a cornerstone
of treatment for high blood pressure (hypertension). But what do you need to eat
to lower your pressure, and how much? A good place to start is the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan. It's scientifically
proven to combat hypertension, but it's not for everyone. "A healthy diet, such as DASH, does take discipline
and commitment," says Dr. Deepak Bhatt, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and chief of
cardiology, VA Boston Healthcare System. "People can certainly do it, but it can be
"Sodium 2,300 milligrams**"
"Based on a 2,100-calorie-per-day diet."
"**The lower-sodium version of DASH calls for a daily limit of 1,500 mg."
Approximately 20 liters of human milk contains 2300 mg of sodium, and about
14,000 calories (14000 kilocalories)!
"One side says everyone needs to cut back on salt to reduce heart disease risk. The other side says
universal salt reduction would be a needless deprivation for many people. Which is correct? There
isn’t a simple answer. .... But there really isn’t a one-size-fits-all recommendation for daily sodium intake."Isn't true what the other side says, because the other
side is not thinking! And there is a simple answer and is a one-size-fits-all recommendation for daily sodium
intake, the scientific elite swept it under the carpet only!
This simple answer - the optimal input - is in the human milk!
Education in USA
Oregon State University,
Linus Pauling Institute
"A cell's membrane potential is maintained by ion
pumps in the cell membrane, especially the sodium, potassium-ATPase pumps. These
pumps use ATP
(energy) to pump sodium out of the cell in exchange for potassium (diagram).
Their activity has been estimated to account for 20%-40% of the
resting energy expenditure in a typical adult. The large proportion of
energy dedicated to maintaining sodium/potassium concentration gradients
emphasizes the importance of this function in sustaining life."
But no sodium induced anaerobic glycolysis and lactic acid. And no Klahr &
Bricker (1965), no Henningsen (1985), no Equivalency Law (1998), and no
Osaka et al (2001) in the references:
Very interesting new article:
Phillipa Caudwell, Graham Finlayson, Catherine Gibbons, Mark Hopkins, Neil King,
Erik Näslund, and John E BlundellResting metabolic rate is associated with hunger, self-determined meal size, and daily energy
intake and may represent a marker for appetite
Am J Clin Nutr January 2013 vol. 97 no. 1 7-14
Abstract:Background: There are strong logical reasons why energy expended in metabolism should influence the energy acquired in food-intake behavior. However, the relation has never been established, and it is not known why certain people experience hunger in the presence of large amounts of body energy.
Objective: We investigated the effect of the resting metabolic rate (RMR) on objective measures of whole-day food intake and hunger.
Design: We carried out a 12-wk intervention that involved 41 overweight and obese men and women [mean ± SD age: 43.1 ± 7.5 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 30.7 ± 3.9] who were tested under conditions of physical activity (sedentary or active) and dietary energy density (17 or 10 kJ/g). RMR, daily energy intake, meal size, and hunger were assessed within the same day and across each condition.
Results: We obtained evidence that RMR is correlated with meal size and daily energy intake in overweight and obese individuals. Participants with high RMRs showed increased levels of hunger across the day (P < 0.0001) and greater food intake (P < 0.00001) than did individuals with lower RMRs. These effects were independent of sex and food energy density. The change in RMR was also related to energy intake (P < 0.0001).
Conclusions: We propose that RMR (largely determined by fat-free mass) may be a marker of energy intake and could represent a physiologic signal for hunger. These results may have implications for additional research possibilities in appetite, energy homeostasis, and
obesity. This trial was registered under international ..."
Education in Hungary
No floor gas (anaerobic) sodium-potassium pump and no lactic acid.
Very bad education!
Pete C. Trimmer, James A.R. Marshall, Lutz Fromhage, John M. McNamara, Alasdair I. Houston
Understanding the placebo effect from an evolutionary perspective
Evolution & Human Behavior Volume 34, Issue 1 , Pages 8-15, January 2013.
(Received 13 September 2011; accepted 24 July 2012. published online 30 August 2012.)
From the New Scientist:
"The results show a clear evolutionary benefit to switching the immune system on and off depending on environmental
And, what does our self-adjusting system do if the "environmental condition"
is the HIGH SODIUM INTAKE during in our whole life?
Energetics "Bokros package" = restrictions!
Prof Rob Moodie MBBS a , David Stuckler PhD b, Carlos Monteiro PhD c, Nick Sheron d, Bruce Neal PhD e,
Thaksaphon Thamarangsi PhD f, Paul Lincoln BSc g, Sally Casswell PhD h, on behalf of The Lancet NCD
Profits and pandemics: prevention of harmful effects of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food
and drink industries
The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 12 February 2013
"The 2011 UN high-level meeting on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) called for multisectoral action including with the private sector and industry. However, through the sale and promotion of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink (unhealthy commodities), transnational corporations are major drivers of global epidemics of NCDs. What role then should these industries have in NCD prevention and control? We emphasise the rise in sales of these unhealthy commodities in low-income and middle-income countries, and consider the common strategies that the transnational corporations use to undermine NCD prevention and control. We assess the effectiveness of self-regulation, public—private partnerships, and public regulation models of interaction with these industries and conclude that unhealthy commodity industries should have no role in the formation of national or international NCD policy. Despite the common reliance on industry self-regulation and public—private partnerships, there is no evidence of their effectiveness or safety. Public regulation and market intervention are the only evidence-based mechanisms to prevent harm caused by the unhealthy commodity
I think strongly - there are very, very much "non-communicable knowledges"
(secret NCKs) in the field of the modern health sciences, for example (or
mainly) in the salt science.
Some examples to the global censorship:
http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001465"Thank you for your interest in PLOS Medicine, particularly regarding the article “Diet and Physical Activity for the Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Policy Review”. We removed your comment because it wasn’t directly pertinent to the article on which it was posted. We are removing the reposted comment as well. Please do not post the comment again."
This comment of mine lived for 3 days on PLOS
The answer to my question (16 Jul 2013) - was this:
My answer (16 Jul 2013) was:
"Dear Margaret! " ... because it wasn´t directly pertinent to the article on which it
was posted." I doubt this strongly. I have one question: which is most important
(for Plos Medicine), the health of the humanity and the freedom of knowledge, or something
http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001466"Dear Dr Sandor, Thank you for your email and I apologize that I did not contact you
yet; I was planning to this week. PLOS has the discretion to remove posts that are not coherent and not immediately relevant to the article. That was the
case for yours. I hope you understand. Thank you for your interest in PLOS Medicine publications. Best wishes, Margaret Winker"
This comment of mine lived for 8 days on PLOS
The answer to my question (23 Aug 2013) - was this:
My answer (23 Aug 2013) was:
"Dear Margaret, The scientific elite (including editors of scientific journals, but not
the politicians) responsible for dead of millions annually in the last 5 decades, because the progress of the health science has been
stopped (in this field: sodium, Na/K pump, entropy etc) globally. I will never understand and accept the censorship and the
misleading of the humanity. Sincerely: Z. Sandor"
My comment to an article in European Heart Journal:
Melanie Nichols, Nick Townsend, Peter Scarborough and Mike Rayner: Trends in age-specific coronary heart disease mortality in the European
Union over three decades: 1980-2009
Eur Heart J (2013) doi:10.1093/eurheartj/eht159 First published online: June 25, 2013
"Excess sodium intake enhances the Entropy, this is the main risk factor of CHD, CVD, etc.
The law of entropy is the fiercest enemy of life and is our fiercest enemy too.
The sodium-chloride isn't food for humans, but is the perfect food of entropy. The spontaneous diffusion of sodium ions into the cells and the diffusion of
potassium ions out of the cells, enhances the entropy. And every mmol excess sodium and the wrong
sodium/potassium ratio (and other wrong ratios) increases more the entropy in our every cells. The task of the
continuously working Na-K pump to keep constant the intracellular concentration of Na and K ions. These
cellular pumps continuously use energy of ATP molecules. Some consequences of high sodium intake; the specialists talk
about these rarely or never: Higher energy requirements (energy expenditure) for Na-K pump and kidney. All the
rest of our vital processes (functional processes of the cells) receive less energy, because the metabolic rate (speed and
capacity of enzyme reactions, oxygen supply, etc.) is limited. And the excess sodium intake do not increase
the oxidative pathway. But, a critical surplus switches the anaerobic glycolysis on, in our every cells. This can be named: Sodium-Induced Cellular
Anaerobic Glycolysis (SICAG). We produce cytotoxic lactic acid in our cells. Consequently, all of our vital processes and organs work worse (our heart,
brain, regulating systems, immune system, etc.) and our cells are dying. We haven't enough energy, and we haven't enough time for the regeneration,
because we enhances the entropy (by high salt intakes) in our every cells, day by day, again and again. We burn the candle on both of his ends (aerobic
and anaerobic). The average lifetime of our cells shortens. Soon (faster) the telomeres run out. Our aging accelerates. We get sick often and we will die
soon. Logical consequence; the unnecessary sodium increases the incidence of all illnesses without any exception, including even the genetic disorders,
cancer, NCD's and infectious diseases. Some people will be obese others not, some become diabetes others not, some have high BP others not (or later), etc.
We are not totally alike, but the entropy law finds our weak point, and ravages mainly there, but increases the disorder in every cells in our body,
and other risk factors affect the individual consequences. The optimal ratios (Na/K ratio, the ratio between sum of alkaline metals and sum of polyvalent
metals, etc.) are in the human milk. From every viewpoint, the human milk is an evolutionary perfect food, including the minimal energy expenditure of the
Na-K pump and kidney of the babies (= possible minimum entropy-transfer into the babies = healthy growing with maximal
economy). Thus, the human milk is the perfect guide to calculate the optimal adult intakes. But the scientists
do not deal with these facts. The sodium recommendation is wrong, the education is wrong, the strategy against the NCD's is
wrong. Unfortunate, that these exist only in traces, in the scientific literature. And in some articles, even
the traces are concealed. I collected the most important evidences (the traces and lack of the traces) of the above ones.
These references are here:
was not published, and this was written as cause:
"After evaluating the paper within the Editorial Office, the Editorial Board has
deemed that your e-letter does not refer to the manuscript in question enough."
Shocking data and facts and things:
Food firms accused of understating
salt levels (24. aug. 2007.)
"The overweight population is threatening future food security,
scientists have warned.
Increasing population fatness could have the same implications for world food
energy demands as an extra one billion people, researchers claimed after
examining the average weight of adults across the globe.
Scientists from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) said
that tackling population weight is crucial for food security and ecological
The United Nations (UN) predicts that by 2050 there could be a further 2.3
billion people on the planet and that the ecological implications of the rising
population numbers will be exacerbated by increases in average body mass,
The world's adult population weighs 287 million tonnes, 15
million of which is due to being overweight and 3.5 million is due to obesity,
according to the study, which is to be published in BMC Public Health.
The data, collected from the UN and the World Health Organisation, shows that
while the average global weight per person is 62kg in 2005, Britons weighed
75kg. In the US, the average adult weighed 81kg.
Across Europe, the average weight was 70.8kg compared to just 57.7kg in Asia.
More than half of people living in Europe are overweight (55.6%) compared to
only 24.2% of Asian people. Almost three-quarters of people living in north
America were overweight.
Researchers predict that if all people had the same average body mass index (BMI)
as Americans, the total human biomass would increase by 58 million tonnes.
The authors of the study said that the energy requirement of humans depends not
only on numbers but average mass."
"Too much sodium may lead to high
blood pressure in those who are sensitive to sodium. If you have high
blood pressure, your doctor will probably recommend that you reduce your
sodium (salt) intake.
Sodium may lead to a serious
build-up of fluid in people with congestive
heart failure, cirrhosis,
disease. Such people should be on a strict sodium-restricted diet, as
prescribed by their doctor."
A 2006 review identified ten other possible contributors to the recent
increase of obesity: (1) insufficient sleep, (2) endocrine
disruptors (environmental pollutants
that interfere with lipid metabolism), (3) decreased variability in ambient
temperature, (4) decreased rates of smoking,
because smoking suppresses appetite, (5) increased use of medications that can
cause weight gain (e.g., atypical
antipsychotics), (6) proportional increases in ethnic and age groups that
tend to be heavier, (7) pregnancy at a later age (which may cause susceptibility
to obesity in children), (8) epigenetic
risk factors passed on generationally, (9) natural
selection for higher BMI, and (10) assortative
mating leading to increased concentration of obesity risk factors (this
would increase the number of obese people by increasing population variance in
While there is substantial evidence supporting the influence of these mechanisms
on the increased prevalence of obesity, the evidence is still inconclusive, and
the authors state that these are probably less influential than the ones
discussed in the previous paragraph."
The title in english: The 3 most dangerous substance causing
Saturated fat, Salt, Sugar!